Palenque is a Maya civilization site located in the state of Chiapas, in Mexico. Occupied between about CE 200-800, Palenque's heyday was under Pakal the Great ruled CE 615-683, one of the most powerful kings of central America in Late Classic times.
The rulers of Palenque were called the "Holy Lord of Toktahn" or "Holy Lord of Baakal", and among the king list are several legendary leaders, including Snake Spine and Ch'a Ruler I. Snake Spine, if he was a real person, lived when the Olmec civilization ruled, and traded extensively into much of what is today considered the Maya region. The very first named ruler of Palenque is GI, the First Father, said to have been born 3122 BCE, and the Ancestral Goddess said to have been born 3121 BCE.
The dynastic rulers of Palenque begin with Bahlum-Kuk or K'uk Balahm, the Quetzal Jaguar, who took the throne of Palenque in 431 CE.
- U-K'ix-Chan (Snake Spine or O Pop) 967 BCE
- Ch'a Ruler I (Caspar) 252 BCE
- K'uk' Bahlam (Quetzal Jaguar) CE 431-435
- Ch'a Ruler (II) (Caspar II) 435-487
- Butz'aj Sak Chihk (Manik) 487-501
- Ahkal Mo' Nahb I (Lord Chaac or Chaacal I) 501-529
- K'an Joy Chitam (K'an Xul I), 529-565
- Ahkal Mo' Nahb II (chaacal II, Akul Ah Nab II) 565-570
- Kan Bahlam (Chan Bahlum I, Kan-Balam I) 572-583
- Ix Yohl Ik'nal (Lady Kan, Lady Kanal Ikal) 583-604
- Ajen Yohl Mat (Aahc-Kan, Ac-Kan, Ah K'an) 605-612
- Janab Pakal (Pacal I) 612-612
- Muwaan Mat (Lady Beastie) 612-615
- K'inich Janab Pakal (Lord Shield, Pacal, Pakal) 615-683
- K'inich Kan Bahlam (Snake jaguar, Chan Bahlum), 684-702
- K'inich K'an Joy Chitam (Lord Hok, K'an Xul, K'an Xul II), 702-722
- K'inich Ahkal Mo' Nahb (Chaacal III, Ah Kul Ah Nab III), 722-?
- Upakal K'inich Janab Pakal ?-?
- K'inich Kan Bahlam II ?-?
- K'inich K'uk' Bahlam (Lord K'uk', Bahlum K'uk') 764-?
Robinson, Merle Green. 2002. Palenque (Chiapas, Mexico). pp 572-577 in Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America: An Encyclopedia, Susan Toby Evans and David L. Webster, eds. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
Stuart, David and George Stuart. 2008. Palenque: Eternal City of the Maya. Thames and Hudson.