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In English grammar, the base form of a verb is its simplest form. It exists without a special ending or suffix. It's the form that appears in dictionary entries. lt is also known as the plain form, simple form, or stem.
The base form of a verb functions as the present tense form for the first- and second-person singular (e.g., "I walk," "You walk"), and the first-, second-, and third-person plural ("We walk," "You walk," "They walk"). Said another way, the base form serves as the present tense form for all persons and numbers except the third-person singular, which has the -s ending ("He walks," She walks," "It walks"). Additional verbs can be created with prefixes added to the base verb, for example, overthrow or undo.
The base form also functions as the infinitive (with or without to) and as the present subjunctive for all persons including the third-person singular. In addition, the base form is used for the imperative mood.
Examples of a Simple Verb
Here are some examples of a simple verb, in different contexts:
Present tense is for action happening now.
- When I ring the bell, you leave the room.
- "Men live in a fantasy world. I know this because I am one, and I actually receive my mail there." (Scott Adams)
An infinitive verb is used with "to" as part of a verb phrase.
- I want to see the stars.
- "It's always easier to learn something than to use what you've learned." (Chaim Potok, The Promise, 1967)
Using the subjunctive tense indicates that the outcome isn't definite.
- The music teacher insists that John sing.
- The tour guide recommends that we travel in pairs.
In the first example, although the teacher might insist, John might refuse to sing. In the second, some people could disregard the recommendation and go off on their own.
The imperative is a command, with the subject implied as being "you" (second person).
- Take my car and drive yourself home.
- "Go to the edge of the cliff and jump off. Build your own wings on the way down." (Ray Bradbury)
A Building Block Verb
The simple regular verb is used to build other verb forms by using suffixes. (Irregular verbs are beyond the scope of this article.) For example:
Simple Past Tense
Simple past tense is for action that's completed.
- I walked to the store for some bread.
Past perfect denotes action that took place before the most recent past action.
- I had eaten there last year on vacation, but on this year's trip, we chose another place nearby.
- I had walked home after practice yesterday.
Continuous, or Progressive, Tenses, and Gerunds
Present continuous action is happening now and hasn't finished yet. The simple verb form takes on an -ing and becomes a participle.
- I am walking home from school after practice.
The participle can also be used for other tenses, such as future continuous.
- I will be walking home from school later.
Past continuous shows something continued happening in the past. Contrast it with an action that happened and was then completed:
- We were walking home when a Stan drove by in his truck.
An -ing form used as a noun is a gerund.
- Walking is good exercise.