Alemanni Timeline

Alemanni Timeline

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  • 98 CE

    The Suevi tribe (later the Alemanni) first mentioned in Tacitus' work.

  • 213 CE

    The Alemanni first mentioned by name in Cassius Dio's work.

  • c. 256 CE

    King Chrocus of the Alemanni invades Gaul and destroys the region.

  • 259 CE

    The Alemanni invade Italy.

  • c. 260 CE

    Glanum is destroyed by the Alemanni.

  • 268 CE

    Alemanni defeated by the Romans at the Battle of Benacus.

  • 271 CE

    Aurelian's campaigns against the Alemanni.

  • 298 CE

    Constantius' campaigns against the Alemanni.

  • 356 CE

    The Alemanni defeat the Roman general Julian at the Battle of Rheims.

  • 357 CE

    The Battle of Strasbourg at which Julian completely defeats the Alemanni.

  • 367 CE

    Emperor Valentinian I defeats the Alemanni at the Battle of Solicinium.

  • 451 CE

    The Alemanni serve as allies of Attila the Hun at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains against Roman forces led by Aetius.

  • 496 CE

    Alemanni defeated by the Frankish king Clovis at the Battle of Tolbiac.


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Swabia, German Schwaben, historic region of southwestern Germany, including what is now the southern portion of Baden-Württemberg Land (state) and the southwestern part of Bavaria Land in Germany, as well as eastern Switzerland and Alsace.

Swabia’s name is derived from that of the Suebi, a Germanic people who, with the Alemanni, occupied the upper Rhine and upper Danube region in the 3rd century ad and spread south to Lake Constance and east to the Lech River. Known first as Alemannia, the region was called Swabia from the 11th century. The Franks under Clovis mastered the Alemanni about ad 500 later in the 6th century, the Franks established a duchy in Alemannia to control the region, which gained autonomy under the later Merovingians but lost it under the Carolingians. The Lex Alemannorum, a code based on Alemannic customary law, first emerged in the 7th century. By the 7th century Irish missionaries began to introduce Christianity. Centres of Christian activity included the abbeys of St. Gall and of Reichenau and the bishoprics of Basel, Constance, and Augsburg most Swabian sees came into the archepiscopal province of Mainz.

Swabia was one of the five great Stamm (stem, or tribal) duchies of earlier medieval Germany—with Franconia, Saxony, Bavaria, and Lotharingia (Lorraine)—and was held by successive families. Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke in 1057, was set up as German king in 1077 in opposition to Henry IV, who in 1079 appointed the rebel’s son-in-law, Frederick I of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia. Frederick’s grandson was elected German king as Frederick I Barbarossa in 1152 and Swabia remained a dynastic possession of the Hohenstaufen until the extinction of their male line in 1268. Thereafter, local nobles, especially the counts of Württemberg, appropriated the ducal and royal lands. The German king Rudolf of Habsburg salvaged parts of the duchy for his son, Rudolf II of Austria but by 1313, with the death of the latter’s son, the ducal title fell out of use.

In the late European Middle Ages the so-called Swabian leagues played an important part in changing struggles between cities supported by the Holy Roman emperor, territorial magnates, and petty nobility. In 1321, in the first league, 22 Swabian imperial (free) cities, including Ulm and Augsburg, banded together to support Emperor Louis IV in return for his undertaking not to mortgage any of them to a vassal Count Ulrich III of Württemberg was induced to join them in 1340. In opposition, the Swabian knights in 1366 formed their own league, the Schleglerbund (from the German Schlegel, “Mallet,” or “Hammer,” on their insignia). In the ensuing civil war, Eberhard II, Ulrich III’s son and successor, joined by the Schleglerbund, defeated the Swabian cities in 1372.

Ulm organized a new league of 14 Swabian imperial cities in 1376 with the aims of protecting the members’ status against the threat of mortgaging and safeguarding their commercial interests. In 1377 this new league defeated Eberhard II’s son Ulrich at Reutlingen, and it was a force in southern Germany until Eberhard II defeated it in 1388. In 1395 Eberhard III of Württemberg toppled the Schleglerbund by taking its fortress at Heimsheim.

In 1488 a new, more comprehensive Swabian league was formed, at Esslingen, not only of 22 imperial cities but also of the Swabian knights’ League of St. George’s Shield, bishops, and princes (Tirol, Württemberg, the Palatinate, Mainz, Trier, Baden, Hesse, Bavaria, Ansbach, and Bayreuth). The league was governed by a federal council of three colleges of princes, cities, and knights calling upon an army of 13,000 men. It aided in the rescue of the future emperor Maximilian I, Frederick III’s son, held prisoner in the Netherlands, and later was his main support in southern Germany. It helped to suppress the Peasants’ Revolt (1524–25). The Reformation caused the league to be disbanded in 1534.

The name of Swabia was perpetuated in that of the Swabian Kreis (“circle,” or administrative district), one of the zones into which Germany was divided, from the 16th century onward, for purposes of imperial administration. First organized in 1500, the Swabian Kreis was fully established in 1555 and lasted until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. There was also a Swabian Bench of Cities in the old imperial Diet (Reichstag).

Alemanni Timeline - History


K. R. Overholt Critchfield © 1999

Abraham Overholt & Sons

National Park Service © 1983

Historic American Bldgs Survey

Reflections on West Overton

Along the Banks of Jacobs Creek

Stauffer Homestead, c 1882

Maria Stauffer Overholt

Joseph R. Stauffer

Dallas News © John Knott

HABS/HAER Report © 1990

HABS/HAER Report © 1990

Broad Ford Piers © JimBat 2007

Broad Ford, circa 2009

Broad Ford 1959

Broad Ford Swinging Bridge

Ruined Bridge at Broad Ford
© Brian J. Krummel 2007

Broad Ford © Jeffrey Antol 2007

Elevator Building & Granary
© Jeffrey Antol 2007

Doorway © cjb 2009

Grain Elevator © cjb 2009

Dillinger Obelisk ©
Sam Komlenic 2005

Welcome to all visitors, and hi, cousins!

Hello! I am a direct descendant of Abraham Overholt (1784-1870), a Mennonite of Swiss ancestry who augmented his position as the family weaver by tending the family "still." Abraham became famous for his Pennsylvania pure rye whiskey at West Overton, East Huntingdon Township in Westmoreland County, Western Pennsylvania. Beginning with a log cabin distillery and a reputation for excellence, Abraham, and sons Henry and Jacob, expanded the business over the course of their lifetimes, making the Overholt name synonymous for fine whiskey. Jacob launched a second and larger distillery complex at Broad Ford, on the banks of the Youghiogheny River. Upon his death, Abraham purchased his son's two-thirds interest in the Broad Ford site, rebuilt the property, and folded it into the corporate identity of A. Overholt & Company. Over time, the West Overton distillery made the brand name Old Farm famous, but it was the Broad Ford distillery that launched Old Overholt, years after the master distiller's death.

While Abraham's whiskey is a notable chapter of the family saga, there is so much more to our history that goes back to our European roots, much of it dealing with pivotal events in European history, Church history, and the history of Colonial America. From the time our ancestors left their mountain home in Switzerland, to the time their descendants helped establish Mennonite communities in William Penn's colony, to the time Henrich Oberholtzer led his train of Conestoga wagons west of the Allegheny Mountains -- the story of the Overholt Family provides many subjects to research and study.

This web site is dedicated to my great-great-great grandparents, Abraham Overholt and Maria Stauffer, their immediate extended family, and the greater extended Overholt family. My aspiration is to focus on the pioneers who settled the "wild country" west of the Allegheny Mountains, the men who cleared the land and built thriving farms, and the women who created homes for their husbands and children. When they planted their produce and sowed the fields with grain, they planted themselves in the future of the region, and sowed the seeds of a large part of Western Pennsylvania history. I have set before me the task of doing my part to remember and commemorate their frontier spirit, their hard work, and all that yet remains of their combined effort to create something worthwhile.

The distilleries at West Overton and Broad Ford were still operating, when the next generations of Overholts made careers in banking, coal mining, coke production, and industrial manufacturing. Eventually, many lost interest in West Overton and the whiskey business, a loss precipitated by a burgeoning railroad industry and the meteoric rise of Henry Clay Frick, a grandson of Abraham Overholt. Frick needed coal to feed thousands of beehive ovens, which produced coke, which was needed by steel mills. The Industrial Revolution could easily be blamed for the apparent disappearance of the Overholt name in the area, but that would be an oversimplification, for much of the innovation implemented by the Overholts and their cousins enabled the birth of that revolution. And of course, the sons and daughters of the "O" family intermarried with all the other families of the area -- many of them remained, but many moved further north, west and elsewhere, until the name Overholt came to be written in the histories of just about every state in the Union, including Hawaii.

Today, through Internet search engines, we can find hundreds of descendants of the original Oberholtzer families, who took root and still thrive in many counties of Eastern Pennsylvania. Our branch of the family traces back to Marcus Oberholtzer and Elizabeth Ely, our Swiss ancestors, who arrived in America in the early 1700s. Other branches (established lines and unestablished lines, in genealogical terms) settled throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia. Several Canadian lines settled in Ontario, and I have received e-mail from a few of their descendants. Some branches of the family still spell their surnames Oberholtzer or Oberholser, or use Overholt, Overholts, or some other spelling. But we are all The Extended Overholt Family now, no matter where we presently call home.

I have heard from a couple Overholt cousins living and working in Hong Kong, China. I have heard from American servicemen stationed in Europe, living near the towns in Switzerland or Germany that are part of the "O" immigration story. Many cousins have written with a friendly "hello," and have taken the time to share personal stories and family history -- some of their stories are found in my web pages. Since I published my first articles, many people (long-lost relatives and those who are interested in Overholt Whiskey) have expressed appreciation for my work, often because they previously knew little or nothing about our family origins or historical significance. The "thank you" notes have been, and continue to be, a real blessing. I remain so glad I began this Internet adventure!

If all goes well, this page will serve as a signpost for even more long-lost relatives, enabling us to become more aware and acquainted with each other. As my web-building skills sharpen, appearances may change, but the intent will always stay the same. I want to highlight as much of our story as possible, and encourage all of us to pay attention to what is happening at West Overton (West Overton Village and Museums), and to the hoped-for acquisition, reclamation and renovation of what remains of the A. Overholt and Company distillery site at Broad Ford, PA.

See Table of Contents Below

You are invited to visit my other web pages (see below) for more history and photographs of today's West Overton, Broad Ford, and other important sites. I have accumulated quite a lot of pages now, but hope you will consider your time well-spent! You will find feature articles and presentations of our shared history that may be valuable resources for members of The Extended Overholt Family.

Overholser Family Association
The genealogists of the OFA are working at the cutting edge of the "O" family
genealogies. They may be able to help you develop your own family tree.
Visit the OFA's web site.

GenForum has pages for "Overholt" and "Oberholtzer."
The pages are now "read only," but still contain lots of genealogical information.
Check the various spellings of the surname for even more data.
Visit GenForum's Overholt Family page.
Visit GenForum's Oberholtzer Family page.

OLD OVERHOLT: The History of a Whiskey

Updated & Renovated December 10, 2005

Old Overholt, Part I
George Washington Effectively Begins the French and Indian War
The Overholt Family: From Bucks to Westmoreland County
Descendants of Henry Oberholtzer
Whiskey as a Necessity
The Excise Tax and the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794

Old Overholt, Part II
Abraham Sees a Future in Distilling Whiskey
Descendants of Abraham Overholt
A Whiskey of Quality and Character
Abraham Discovers Coal in the Region
A Reputation Spanning American History

Old Overholt, Part III
Changes Over Time
Grandson Henry Clay Frick
Modern Broad Ford and the Overholt Distillery [circa 1935]
The Overholt Family Tree

Addenda, Part I
Text of Legal Papers
RE: The History of the Overholt Distilleries
Contents, Part I
Addendum A, B, C, D, E, F

Addenda, Part II
Text of Legal Papers
RE: The History of the Overholt Distilleries
Contents, Part II
Addendum G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O

National and Economic Events/Overholt Family Events
The 16th & 17th Century
The 18th Century
The 19th Century
The 20th Century [to 1935]

Sons & Grandsons of Westmoreland County, Part 1
Articles & portraits from old history books, newspaper articles, etc.
Abraham Overholt - Henry Stauffer Overholt
Jacob Stauffer Overholt - Christian Stauffer Overholt
Abraham Overholt Tinstman - Benjamin Franklin Overholt
Abraham Carpenter Overholt - Ralph Overholt
Martin Overholt Overholt - James E. Tinstman
Henry Vinton Overholt
Big Fire At The Overholt Distillery (1905)

Sons & Grandsons of Westmoreland County, Part 2
Articles & portraits from old history books, featuring:
Samuel Dillinger - The Overholt Family
The Stoner Family - The Fox Family
The Kline Family - The Loucks Family
Peter Stauffer Loucks - Col. Israel Painter
John W. Painter - Joseph Lippincott
William J. K. Kline, M.D.- Dr. Nicholas L. K. Kline
The Markle Family

Sons & Grandsons of Westmoreland County, Part 3
Articles & portraits from old history books, featuring:
Gen. Joseph Markle - Cyrus Painter Markle
Shepard B. Markle - Shepherd Brown Markle
Cassius Clay Markle

Broad Ford's Overholt Distillery

Broad Ford's Overholt Distillery
Fall 2012 Connellsville Crossroads Magazine Article
1905 Article by Connellsville's The Weekly Courier

Employees Earn 10-Year Service Pins
A. Overholt and Company, August 16, 1943
Forty-two employees appear in the photograph
Access the full-size edited photo
Access the full-size original photo

West Overton's Overholt Distillery

Pittsburgh Three Rivers Landscape Circa 1874
Presenting the Otto Krebs Lithograph of Pittsburgh
A bird's-eye view of a city the Overholts knew well
(Updated 9-18-18)

Christmas Blessings
Karen displays her Christmas e-card creations (2004-2017)

Alemanni, by The History Files
Data about our ancient ancestors, the Alemanni Tribes
History Timeline of Alemanni Kings & Conflicts

Oberholtzer Sites in Germany
Carroll Overholt & his son Charles Tour Germany
Story & Photographs by Carroll & Charles Overholt
Frankfurt am Main & Sinsheim
Oberholzer Communities in the Sinsheim Valley
Immelhauser Hof & Steinsberg Castle

On the Western Edge of Canton St. Gallen
Nelson Lafon & Emily Marston in Oberholz, Switzerland
Story & Photographs by Nelson Lafon
Oberholz in Summer

Maps of Interest to "O" Families
History Maps of Central Europe
Oberholz Locations & Maps of Switzerland
Oberholtzer Communities in Germany
Thirty Miles from Frankfurt am Main
The Rhine River System

Odds and Ends
Internet Resources for Oberholz & Switzerland
Sankt Gallen, St. Gall, St. Gall's Abbey
Pictures of Wald, Swiss Alps & Obersee
St. Oberholz in Berlin, Germany
Castle Ruins of Hoenstaufen, Germany
Zurich Memorial for Drowned Anabaptists

Oberholz TrinityChapel
Introduction to Trinity Chapel at Oberholz
Photographs by Charles Overholt
Trinity Chapel Location & Maps

Updated & Renovated January 5, 2005

Karen's Branches, Page Two
The Overholt Family and West Overton, PA
4 Photos of West Overton

Karen's Branches, Page Three
The Overholt Family and West Overton, PA (continued)
4 Photos of West Overton

Mrs. Rose J. Fink
Birth Name: Rosa Domenica Plocido
(aka Rose Joann Overholt)
b. September 17, 1929, Pittsburgh, PA
d. April 6, 2010, Tampa, FL

Lee Roy Fink
(Veteran - U.S. Air Force)
b. December 14, 1935, Minatare, NE
d. February 29, 2016, Tampa, FL

Duane Martin Overholt
(Veteran - U.S. Air Force)
b. October 30, 1952, McKees Rocks, PA
d. October 20, 2016, Montgomery Village, MD

NPS Report on West Overton

West Overton Ranks as a Landmark in 1985
This National Park Service Report led to
West Overton's rank as a Landmark (1985)

HABS Report on West Overton (1990)

Reflections On West Overton

Winifred Paul and Along the Banks of Jacobs Creek
Highlighting Author Winifred Paul and Her Book
A Letter From Winifred Paul
Contacting John B. Roose
The Town of Jacobs Creek, PA
The Jacobs Creek Watershed Association

Our Stauffer Cousins
Written in collaboration with Thomas Ridenour
Drawing of Stauffer Farm & Mill
Drawing of Dexter Coke-Works
The Stauffer Family Tree

Thomas Ridenour's Branches
Map of West Overton Area
Stauffer Family History in Pictures

Stauffer Family History in Pictures
Old Photographs of Stauffer Properties
Antique Photographs of Stauffer Family
Charcoal Portraits
Joseph R. Stauffer Obituary
Abraham K. Stauffer Obituary

Stauffer Generations
The Story of the Rev. Abraham Stauffer
Christian Stauffer Generational Chart
Stauffer Family Tree Web Sites

The Stauffer Homestead House
Introducing the Stauffer Homestead House
A Few Stauffer Generations
The Stauffer House in Pictures
Photos From June 18, 2005
Photos From May 17, 2004
Arranging a Visit

Overholt Whiskey & the Mellons

The Famous Case of Heiner v. Mellon
The Text of the 1938 U.S. Supreme Court Case
Plenty of Questions & Notes on the Side
1867 Atlas Drawing of West Overton
How to Order a CoDallas Newspy of the 1867 Atlas Drawing
Text of Letter from R. B. Mellon to H. C. Frick
Documents From Historic Pittsburgh

HABS/HAER Report on Broad Ford (1990)

HABS/HAER-Broad Ford
America's Industrial Heritage Report on
The Overholt Distillery at Broad Ford (1990)

Changing the Course of History
Nomination of Broad Ford for Endangered Status
Notification Letter from Preservation Pennsylvania

Broad Ford in the News
News Stories from December 18, 2004 back to October 16, 2004

Broad Ford Geocacher
Photographs by Geocacher "JimBat"
Living Green
Old Overholt Distillery Swinging Bridge Cache
Geocaching - A Short Introduction

Broad Ford Autumn
Photographs by Jeffrey Antol
Brittle Leaves Underfoot
When Yellow Brick Looks Burnt Orange
Off the Beaten Path

Broad Ford Winters
Classic Photographs
Frozen Hush of Winter
Broad Ford's Youghiogheny River
History in Black and White
Brian Krummel's Forgotten Bridge

Broad Ford Aerial Photographs

Broad Ford Aerial History
Historic Aerial Photographs from Penn Pilot
Aerial Photographs from 1939
Photo of A. Overholt & Co. Distillery Complex, c.1942
Aerial Photographs from 1959
Aerial Photographs from 1967
Thinking Over Lost Time and Times
So, How Much Is Left?
Graphic Showing Lost & Existing Buildings
Exerpts from HABS/HAER Report on Broad Ford (1990)
Afterthought: The Conveyor Engine?

Broad Ford Aerial History, Page 2
Aerial Photos of Broad Ford Terrain from Penn Pilot
More Penn Pilot Aerial Photography
History and The Overholt Family
Curious Terrain, or Hey! What IS that?
See More Photos

Broad Ford Dismantled
Pictures by Flickr Photographer cjb19772009
Flickr Photographer Visits Broad Ford
Bonded Warehouse D
Not A Perfect Rectangle
Warehouse Damage Exposed
When Walls Were Still Standing
Demolition Rubble
Overholt Distillery Row
Little Information from Shallenberger Construction
Ages of Overholt Distillery Bricks
Lest We Forget the History

Broad Ford Distressed
Pictures by Flickr Photographer cjb19772009
Flickr Photographer at Broad Ford
Study of the Granary Building
The Building Has Two Faces
Granary Interiors
The Bonded Bottling House
Report of 2004 Fire in "Cafeteria"
Bottling House Interiors
Future Location of Karen's Old Farm Distillery?
New Fermenting House
Drying House & Machine Shop
New Fermenting House Interiors
Mystery of the Abandoned Sewing Machine

Broad Ford Distressed 2
Pictures by Flickr Photographer cjb19772009
More From Flickr Photographer at Broad Ford
Distillery Building Interiors
Studying The Fermenting Tubs
Mounting For A Copper Still?
Free Warehouse A -- aka, Machine Shop-Fabricating Shop
Free Warehouse A Interiors
The Office Building
Office Building Interiors
The Grain Elevator
Trespassers Beware!

Broad Ford Distressed Summer
Pictures by Flickr Photographer cjb19772009
Summer Shots From Flickr Photographer
Studies In Gold
On A Bright Summer Day
Distillery Road Warehouse
Free Warehouse A
The Bonded Bottling House In Summer
Distressed Bottling House
Study Of A Bridge Support

Inside Looking Out
Pictures by Flickr Photographer cjb19772009
Inside Looking Out
Inside The Office Building
A Track Runs Through It
Looking Toward The Light
Light & Shadow Inside Free Warehouse A
Inside The Granary Doorway
Inside The Water Tower Supports
New Fermenting House & Attached Buildings
Inside The Glow Of Past Glory
Inside The Ruins Of The Tax Paid Case Warehouse
The Window As Art
Inside Looking At The Outside Green
Real Eye-Openers

Outside Looking In
Pictures by Flickr Photographer cjb19772009
Outside Looking In
Outside At The Office Building
Still Outside Looking In
Outside Free Warehouse A
Outside The Grain Elevator
Outside The Granary
Outside The Water Tower Supports
Outside New Fermenting House Closet
Outside The Bottling House
Looking In A Distillery Hallway
Graffiti At Hallway's End
Outside A Tunnel Looking In
Outside The Stack
RE: Temple Bricks

Other Articles
Samuel Dillinger

The Overholt-Dillinger Connection
Was Dillinger Whiskey Another Overholt Whiskey?
Samuel Dillinger
The Dillinger Obelisk
Sam Komlenic Discovers the Dillinger Monument
The Overholt-Stauffer-Loucks-Dillinger Connection
The Loucks-Dillinger Connection
From Public Squares to Pike Journeys: The Story of the Wagoners
The Hixson-Dillinger Connection
The Baer-Dillinger Connection
The Dillinger Connection to Coal Mining & Coke Works


In general, the names for Germany can be arranged in six main groups according to their origin:

1. From Old High German diutisc or similar [a]

    : Duitsland : 德意志 in both simpl. and trad. (pinyin: Déyìzhì)
    commonly 德國 / 德国 (Déguó, "Dé" is the abbr. of 德意志 ,
    "guó" means "country") : Tyskland : Duitsland : Týskland : Deutschland : Þýskaland : Tedesco (meaning German) : ドイツ(独逸) (Doitsu) : Ubudage[1] : 독일(獨逸) (Dogil). 도이칠란드 (Doichwillandeu - North Korea) : dotygu'e : Düütschland/Duutslaand : Däitschland : Teutonia, regnum Teutonicum : Teutōtitlan : Tyskland : Duiska : Tôitšhi : Tyskland : Đức : Dútslân : דײַטשלאַנד ‎ (daytshland)
    : Jeureuman : Gjermania : ܓܪܡܢ (jerman) : Գերմանիա (Germania) : জার্মানি (jarmani) : Германия (Germánija) [b] : Germany : Germanio (also Germanujo) : Gjermanie : გერმანია (germania) : Γερμανία (Germanía) : જર્મની (jarmanī) : Jamus : גרמניה ‎ (germánya) : जर्मनी / جرمنی (jarmanī) : Germania : Jerman : Germania : An Ghearmáin : Germania[c] : Kelemania : ಜರ್ಮನಿ (jarmani) : ເຢຍລະມັນ (yīa la man) : Germania : Германија (Germanija) : Jerman : Yn Ghermaan : Ġermanja : Tiamana : जर्मनी (jarmanī) : Jāmne : Герман (German) : Djermani : जर्मनी (jarmanī) : ਜਰਮਨੀ (jarmanī) : Germania[d] : Germania : Германия (Germánija) [e] : Siamani : Germania : A' Ghearmailt : Girmania : ජර්මනිය (jarmaniya) : Jerman : Ujerumani : Heremani : இடாய்ச்சுலாந்து (idaichulandu) செருமனி (cerumani), ஜெர்மனி (jermani) : เยอรมนี (yəə-rá-má-nii), เยอรมัน (yəə-rá-mán) : Siamane

3. From the name of the Alamanni tribe

    : ألمانيا ‎ ('ʾalmānyā) : Alemaña : Almaniya : Alemania : Alamagn : Alemanya : Almayn : Alemanya : Alemagnes : Allemagne : Alemaña : Алмания (Almanïya) Not used anymore or used very rarely, now using Russian "Германия". : អាល្លឺម៉ង់ (ʾaalləɨmɑng) : Elmaniya : Alemannia : Almanha : Alemanha ᐋᓂᒫ (aanimaa) : آلمان ‎ ('ālmān) : Almagna : Alemanha : Alimanya : Alemania : Олмон (Olmon) : Алмания Almania : Alemaña : Almanya : Yr Almaen(with preceding definite article)

4. From the name of the Saxon tribe

5. From the Protoslavic němьcь [f]

    : نمسا ‎ (nímsā) meaning Austria : Нямеччына (Njamjéččyna) : Немско (Nemsko) (obsolete colloquial) : Njemačka : Německo : Németország : Miemieckô : Njemačka : نمچه ‎ (nemçe) meaning all Austrian - Holy Roman Empire countries : Niemcy : Немачка (Nemačka) : Ńymcy : Nemecko : Nemčija : Nimska : Němska : Німеччина (Niméččyna)

6. From the name of Prussia*: Teutonisch Land, Teutschland used in many areas until the 19th century (see Walhalla opening song)

    : Pruses (mostly in derogatory meaning)
  • informal Luxembourgish: Preisen
  • informal Twents: De Pruus : Prusacy : Purutia (also Heremani, see above)
    : Frángoi, frangikós (for Germans, German) – after the Franks. :
  • אַשְׁכְּנַז ‎ (Ashkenaz) – from biblical Ashkenaz (
  • אַשְׁכְּנַז ‎) was the son of Japheth and grandson of Noah. Ashkenaz is thought to be the ancestor of the Germans. : bawory or bawery (in older or dialectal use) – from the name of Bavaria. : szwaby from Swabia, bambry used for German colonists from the area around Bamberg, krzyżacy (a derogative form of krzyżowcy - crusaders) referring to Teutonic Order, Rajch or Rajś resembling German pronunciation of Reich. [3] : Suðrvegr – literally south way (cf.Norway), [4] describing Germanic tribes which invaded continental Europe. : Ubudage, Kirundi: Ubudagi – thought to derive from the greeting guten Tag used by Germans during the colonial times, [5] or from deutsch. [6] : Béésh Bich’ahii Bikéyah ("Metal Cap-wearer Land"), in reference to Stahlhelm-wearing German soldiers. : Iyášiča Makȟóčhe[7] ("Bad Speaker Land"). : pîwâpiskwastotininâhk ("Among the Steel Helmets") or mâyakwêsinâhk ("Among the Speakers of a Foreign/Strange Language") [8] : miksiskai, Old Prussianmiksiskāi (both for "German") – from miksît "to stammer". (slang of the communist period): Erefen from R.F.N. = F.R.G. (Federal Republic of Germany), [3]
  • Polish (pre-Second World War slang): Rajch from German Reich[3]

The name Deutschland and the other similar-sounding names above are derived from the Old High German diutisc, or similar variants from Proto-Germanic *Þeudiskaz, which originally meant "of the people". This in turn comes from a Germanic word meaning "folk" (leading to Old High German diot, Middle High German diet), and was used to differentiate between the speakers of Germanic languages and those who spoke Celtic or Romance languages. These words come from *teuta, the Proto-Indo-European word for "people" (Lithuanian and Latvian tauta, Old Irish tuath, Old English þeod).

Also the Italian for "German", tedesco (local or archaic variants: todesco, tudesco, todisco), comes from the same Old High German root, although not the name for "Germany" (Germania). Also in the standardised Romansh language Germania is the normal name for Germany but in Sursilvan, Sutsilvan and Surmiran it is commonly referred to as Tiaratudestga, Tearatudestga and Tera tudestga respectively, with tiara/teara/tera meaning land. French words thiois, tudesque, théotisque and Thiogne and Spanish tudesco [9] share this etymology.

The Germanic language which diutisc most likely comes from is West Frankish, a language which died out a long time ago and which there is hardly any written evidence for today. This was the Germanic dialect used in the early Middle Ages, spoken by the Franks in Western Francia, i.e. in the region which is now northern France. The word is only known from the Latin form theodiscus. Until the 8th century the Franks called their language frengisk however, when the Franks moved their political and cultural centre to the area where France now is, the term frengisk became ambiguous, as in the West Francian territory some Franks spoke Latin, some vulgar Latin and some theodisc. For this reason a new word was needed to help differentiate between them. Thus the word theodisc evolved from the Germanic word theoda (the people) with the Latin suffix -iscus, to mean "belonging to the people", i.e. the people's language.

In Eastern Francia, roughly the area where Germany now is, it seems that the new word was taken on by the people only slowly, over the centuries: in central Eastern Francia the word frengisk was used for a lot longer, as there was no need for people to distinguish themselves from the distant Franks. The word diutsch and other variants were only used by people to describe themselves, at first as an alternative term, from about the 10th century. It was used, for example, in the Sachsenspiegel, a legal code, written in Middle Low German in about 1220: Iewelk düdesch lant hevet sinen palenzgreven: sassen, beieren, vranken unde svaven (Every German land has its Graf: Saxony, Bavaria, Franken and Swabia).

The Teutoni, a tribe with a name which probably came from the same root, did, through Latin, ultimately give birth to the English words "Teuton" (first found in 1530) for the adjective German, (as in the Teutonic Knights, a military religious order, and the Teutonic Cross) and "Teuton" (noun), attested from 1833. "Teuton" was also used for Teutonisch Land (land of the Teutons), its abbreviation Teutschland used in some areas until the 19th century and its currently used official variation Deutschland.

In the northern French language area (northern France, Belgium), the neighboring Germanic dialects, areas and inhabitants of Flanders to Alsace are sometimes referred to as Thiois, most likely still for the area between Maastricht and Aachen and for the traditional German speaking part of Lorraine (Lorraine Thioise), The term is obsolete and derives from theodisc (see above). [10]

The name Germany and the other similar-sounding names above are all derived from the Latin Germania, of the 3rd century BC, a word simply describing fertile land behind the limes. It was likely the Gauls who first called the people who crossed east of the Rhine Germani (which the Romans adopted) as the original Germanic tribes did not refer to themselves as Germanus (singular) or Germani (plural). [11]

Julius Caesar was the first to use Germanus in writing when describing tribes in north-eastern Gaul in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico: he records that four northern Belgic tribes, namely the Condrusi, Eburones, Caeraesi and Paemani, were collectively known as Germani. In AD 98, Tacitus wrote Germania (the Latin title was actually: De Origine et situ Germanorum), an ethnographic work on the diverse set of Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire. Unlike Caesar, Tacitus claims that the name Germani was first applied to the Tungri tribe. The name Tungri is thought to be the endonym corresponding to the exonym Eburones.

19th-century and early 20th-century historians speculated on whether the northern Belgae were Celts or Germanic tribes. Caesar claims that most of the northern Belgae were descended from tribes who had long ago crossed the Rhine from Germania. However many tribal names and personal names or titles recorded are identifiably Celtic. It seems likely that the northern Belgae, due to their intense contact with the Gaulish south, were largely influenced by this southern culture. Tribal names were 'qualifications' and could have been translated or given by the Gauls and picked up by Caesar. Perhaps they were Germanic people who had adopted Gaulish titles or names. The Belgians were a political alliance of southern Celtic and northern Germanic tribes. In any case, the Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians: by "German(ic)" Caesar meant "originating east of the Rhine". Tacitus wrote in his book Germania: "The Treveri and Nervii take pride in their German origin, stating that this noble blood separates them from all comparison (with the Gauls) and the Gaulish laziness". [12]

The OED2 records theories about the Celtic roots of the Latin word Germania: one is gair, neighbour (a theory of Johann Zeuss, a German historian and Celtic philologist) – in Old Irish gair is "neighbour". Another theory is gairm, battle-cry (put forward by Johann Wachter and Jacob Grimm, who was a philologist as well as collector and editor of fairy tales). Yet another theory is that the word comes from ger, "spear" however, Eric Partridge suggests *gar / gavin, to shout (as Old Irish garim), describing the Germanic tribesmen as noisy. He describes the ger theory as "obsolete".

In English, the word "German" is first attested in 1520, replacing earlier uses of Almain, Alman and Dutch. In German, the word Germanen today refers to Germanic tribes, just like the Italian noun "Germani" (adjective: "germanici"), and the French adjective "germanique". The English noun "german" (as in "cousin-german") and the adjective "germane" are not connected to the name for the country, but come from the Latin germanus, "siblings with the same parents or father", which has cognates in Catalan, germà, and Spanish, hermano, meaning "brother".

The name Allemagne and the other similar-sounding names above are derived from the southern Germanic Alemanni, a Suebic tribe or confederation in today's Alsace, parts of Baden-Württemberg and Switzerland.

In English, the name "Almain" or "Alman" was used for Germany and for the adjective German until the 16th century, with "German" first attested in 1520, used at first as an alternative then becoming a replacement, maybe inspired mainly by the need to differ them from the more and more independently acting Dutch. In Othello ii,3, (about 1603), for example, Shakespeare uses both "German" and "Almain" when Iago describes the drinking prowess of the English:

I learned it in England, where, indeed, they are most potent in potting: your Dane, your German, and your swag-bellied Hollander—Drink, ho!—are nothing to your English. [. ] Why, he drinks you, with facility, your Dane dead drunk he sweats not to overthrow your Almain he gives your Hollander a vomit, ere the next pottle can be filled.

Andrew Boorde also mentions Germany in his Introduction to Knowledge, c. 1547:

The people of High Almain, they be rude and rusticall, and very boisterous in their speech, and humbly in their apparel . they do feed grossly, and they will eat maggots as fast as we will eat comfits.

Through this name, the English language has also been given the Allemande (a dance), the Almain rivet and probably the almond furnace, which is probably not really connected to the word "almond" (of Greek origin) but is a corruption of "Almain furnace". In modern German, Alemannisch (Alemannic German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family, spoken by approximately ten million people in six countries.

Among the indigenous peoples of North America of former French and British colonial areas, the word for "Germany" came primarily [ citation needed ] as a borrowing from either French or English. For example, in the Anishinaabe languages, three terms for "Germany" exist: ᐋᓂᒫ (Aanimaa, originally Aalimaanh, from the French Allemagne), [13] [14] ᑌᐦᒋᒪᓐ (Dechiman, from the English Dutchman) [14] and ᒣᐦᔭᑴᑦ (Meyagwed, Ojibwe for "foreign speaker" [14] analogous to Slavic Némcy "Mutes" and Arab (ajam) mute), of which Aanimaa is the most common of the terms to describe Germany. [ citation needed ]

The names Saksamaa and Saksa are derived from the name of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons. The word "Saxon", Proto-Germanic *sakhsan, is believed (a) to be derived from the word seax, meaning a variety of single-edged knives: a Saxon was perhaps literally a swordsman, or (b) to be derived from the word "axe", the region axed between the valleys of the Elbe and Weser.

In Finnish and Estonian the words that historically applied to ancient Saxons changed their meaning over the centuries to denote the whole country of Germany and the Germans. In some Celtic languages the word for the English nationality is derived from Saxon, e.g., the Scottish term Sassenach, the Breton terms Saoz, Saozon and the Welsh terms Sais, Saeson. "Saxon" also led to the "-sex" ending in Wessex, Essex, Sussex, Middlesex, etc., and of course to "Anglo-Saxon".

The Slavic exonym nemets, nemtsy derives from Proto-Slavic němьcь, pl. němьci, 'the mutes', 'not able (to speak)' (from adjective němъ 'mute' and suffix -ьcь). [15] It literally means a mute and can be also associated with similar sounding not able, without power, but came to signify those who can't speak (like us) foreigners. The Slavic autonym (Proto-Slavic *Slověninъ) likely derives from slovo, meaning word. According to a theory, early Slavs would call themselves the speaking people or the keepers of the words, as opposed to their Germanic neighbors, the mutes (a similar idea lies behind Greek barbaros, barbarian and Arab عجم (ajam), mute).

At first, němьci may have been used for any non-Slav foreigners, later narrowed to just Germans. The plural form is used for the Germans instead of any specific country name, e.g. Niemcy in Polish and Ńymcy in Silesian dialect. In other languages, the country's name derives from the adjective němьcьska (zemja) meaning 'German (land)' (f.i. Czech Německo). Belarusian Нямеччына (Nyamyecchyna), Bulgarian Немция (Nemtsiya) and Ukrainian Німеччина (Nimecchyna) are also from němьcь but with the addition of the suffix -ina.

According to another theory, [16] [17] Nemtsy may derive from the Rhine-based, Germanic tribe of Nemetes mentioned by Caesar [18] and Tacitus. [19] This etymology is dubious for phonological reasons, as nemetes could not become Slavic němьcь. [15]

In Russian, the adjective for "German", немецкий (nemetskiy) comes from the same Slavic root while the name for the country is Germaniya (Германия). Likewise, in Bulgarian the adjective is "немски" (nemski) and the country is Germaniya (Германия).

Over time, the Slavic exonym was borrowed by some non-Slavic languages. The Hungarian name for Germany is Németország (from the stem Német-. lit. Német Land). The popular Romanian name for German is neamț, used alongside the official term, german, which was borrowed from Latin.

According to the Chinese History of Yuan, the Mongol commander Uriyangkhadai took part in the invasion of Poland and of the Holy Roman Empire, described as the land of the Nie-mi-sz'. [20]

The Arabic name for Austria النمسا an-Nimsā or an-Namsā appeared during the Crusades era, another possibility is that the term could have been known early by Arabs in Al Andalus, the reason behind calling Austria an-Nimsā, which should designate Germans is that Arabs considered Austria to be the nation of German people for a long time in the middle ages, on the other hand the Arabic name of "Germany", Germania or Allemania, took its origin from Latin name Germania.

Ottoman Turkish and Persian word for Austria, "نمچه" – "Nemçe", is borrowed from the anterior Arabic name of Austria known throughout the Islamic world who considered Austria to be home of the Germans. The Austrian Empire as well was the biggest German-speaking country in the 16–17th centuries bordering on the Ottoman Empire.

In Latvian and Lithuanian the names Vācija and Vokietija contain the root vāca or vākiā. Lithuanian linguist Kazimieras Būga associated this with a reference to a Swedish tribe named Vagoths in a 6th-century chronicle (cf. finn. Vuojola and eston. Oju-/Ojamaa, 'Gotland', both thought to be derived from the Baltic word the ethnonym *vakja, used by the Votes (vadja) and the Sami, in older sources (vuowjos), may also be related). So the word for German possibly comes from a name originally given by West Baltic tribes to the Vikings. [21] Latvian linguist Konstantīnos Karulis proposes that the word may be based on the Indo-European word *wek ("speak"), from which derive Old Prussian wackis ("war cry") or Latvian vēkšķis. Such names could have been used to describe neighbouring people whose language was incomprehensible to Baltic peoples.

In East Asia, the names have generally been imported directly from German "deutsch" or Dutch "duits" in various ways.

The Chinese name is a phonetic approximation of the German proper adjective. The Vietnamese name is based on the Chinese name. The Japanese name is a phonetic approximation of the Dutch proper adjective. The Korean name is based on the Japanese name. This is explained in detail below:

The common Chinese name 德国 (德國, pinyin: Déguó ) is a combination of the short form of 德意志 (pinyin: déyìzhì ), which approximates the German pronunciation [ˈdɔʏtʃ] of Deutsch ‘German’, plus 國 guó ‘country’.

The Vietnamese name Đức is the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation (đức [ɗɨ́k] ) of the character 德 that appears in the Chinese name.

Japanese language ドイツ (doitsu) is an approximation of the word Deutsch meaning ‘German’. [22] It was earlier written with the Sino-Japanese character compound 獨逸 (whose 獨 has since been simplified to 独 ), but has been largely superseded by the aforementioned katakana spelling ドイツ . However, the character 独 is still used in compounds, for example 独文 (dokubun) meaning ‘German literature’, or as an abbreviation, such as in 独日関係 (Dokunichi kankei, German-Japanese relations).

The (South) Korean name Dogil ( 독일 ) is the Korean pronunciation of the former Japanese name. The compound coined by the Japanese was adapted into Korean, so its characters 獨逸 are not pronounced do+itsu as in Japanese, but dok+il = Dogil. Until the 1980s, South Korean primary textbooks adopted Doichillanteu ( 도이칠란트 ) which approximates the German pronunciation [ˈdɔʏtʃlant] of Deutschland [ citation needed ] .

The official North Korean name toich'willandŭ ( 도이췰란드 ) approximates the German pronunciation [ˈdɔʏtʃlant] of Deutschland. Traditionally Dogil ( 독일 ) had been used in North Korea until the 1990s [ citation needed ] . Use of the Chinese name (in its Korean pronunciation Deokguk, 덕국 ) is attested for the early 20th century [ citation needed ] . It is now uncommon.

The terminology for "Germany", the "German states" and "Germans" is complicated by the unusual history of Germany over the last 2000 years. This can cause confusion in German and English, as well in other languages. While the notion of Germans and Germany is older, it is only since 1871 that there has been a nation-state of Germany. Later political disagreements and the partition of Germany (1945–1990) has further made it difficult to use proper terminology.

Starting with Charlemagne, the territory of modern Germany was within the realm of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a union of relatively independent rulers who each ruled their own territories. This empire was called in German Heiliges Römisches Reich, with the addition from the late Middle Ages of Deutscher Nation (of (the) German nation), showing that the former idea of a universal realm had given way to a concentration on the German territories.

In 19th- and 20th-century historiography, the Holy Roman Empire was often referred to as Deutsches Reich, creating a link to the later nation state of 1871. Besides the official Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation, common expressions are Altes Reich (the old Reich) and Römisch-Deutsches Kaiserreich (Roman-German Imperial Realm).

Pre-modern Germany (pre-1800) Edit

Roman authors mentioned a number of tribes they called Germani—the tribes did not themselves use the term. After 1500 these tribes were identified by linguists as belonging to a group of Germanic language speakers (which include modern languages like German, English and Dutch). Germani (for the people) and Germania (for the area where they lived) became the common Latin words for Germans and Germany.

Germans call themselves Deutsche (living in Deutschland). Deutsch is an adjective (Proto-Germanic *theudisk-) derived from Old High German thiota, diota (Proto-Germanic *theudō) meaning "people", "nation", "folk". The word *theudō is cognate with Proto-Celtic *teutā, whence the Celtic tribal name Teuton, later anachronistically applied to the Germans. The term was first used to designate the popular language as opposed to the language used by the religious and secular rulers who used Latin.

In the Late Medieval and Early Modern period, Germany and Germans were known as Almany and Almains in English, via Old French alemaigne, alemans derived from the name of the Alamanni and Alemannia. These English terms were obsolete by the 19th century. At the time, the territory of modern Germany belonged to the realm of the Holy Roman Empire (the Roman Empire restored by the Christian king of Francony, Charlemagne). This feudal state became a union of relatively independent rulers who developed their own territories. Modernisation took place on the territorial level (such as Austria, Prussia, Saxony or Bremen), not on the level of the Empire.

1800–1871 Edit

The French emperor, Napoleon, forced the Emperor of Austria to step down as Holy Roman Emperor in 1806. Some of the German countries were then collected into the Confederation of the Rhine, which remained a military alliance under the "protection" of Napoleon, rather than consolidating into an actual confederation. After the fall of Napoleon in 1815, these states created a German Confederation with the Emperor of Austria as president. Some member states, such as Prussia and Austria, included only a part of their territories within the confederation, while other member states brought territories to the alliance that included people, like the Poles and the Czechs, who did not speak German as their native tongue. In addition, there were also substantial German speaking populations that remained outside the confederation.

In 1841 Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the song Das Lied der Deutschen, [23] giving voice to the dreams of a unified Germany (Deutschland über Alles) to replace the alliance of independent states. In this era of emerging national movements, "Germany" was used only as a reference to a particular geographical area.

In 1866/1867 Prussia and her allies left the German Confederation, which led to the confederation being dissolved and the formation of a new alliance, called the North German Confederation. It became a federal state with its constitution of 1 July 1867. The remaining South German countries, with the exception of Austria and Liechtenstein, joined the country in 1870. [24]

German Federation Edit

The first nation state named "Germany" began in 1871 before that Germany referred to a geographical entity comprising many states, much as "the Balkans" is used today, or the term "America" was used by the founders of "the United States of America."

In German constitutional history, the expressions Reich (reign, realm, empire) and Bund (federation, confederation) are somewhat interchangeable. Sometimes they even co-existed in the same constitution: for example in the German Empire (1871–1918) the parliament had the name Reichstag, the council of the representatives of the German states Bundesrat. When in 1870–71 the North German Confederation was transformed into the German Empire, the preamble said that the participating monarchs are creating einen ewigen Bund (an eternal confederation) which will have the name Deutsches Reich.

Due to the history of Germany, the principle of federalism is strong. Only the state of Hitler (1933–1945) and the state of the communists (East Germany, 1949–1990) were centralist states. As a result, the words Reich and Bund were used more frequently than in other countries, in order to distinguish between imperial or federal institutions and those at a subnational level. For example, a modern federal German minister is called Bundesminister, in contrast to a Landesminister who holds office in a state such as Rhineland-Palatinate or Lower Saxony.

As a result of the Hitler regime, and maybe also of Imperial Germany up to 1919, many Germans – especially those on the political left – have negative feelings about the word Reich. [ citation needed ]

Bund is another word also used in contexts other than politics. Many associations in Germany are federations or have a federalised structure and differentiate between a Bundesebene (federal/national level) and a Landesebene (level of the regional states), in a similar way to the political bodies. An example is the German Football Association Deutscher Fußballbund. (The word Bundestrainer, referring to the national football coach, does not refer to the Federal Republic, but to the Fußballbund itself.)

In other German speaking countries, the words Reich (Austria before 1918) and Bund (Austria since 1918, Switzerland) are used too. An organ named Bundesrat exists in all three of them: in Switzerland it is the government and in Germany and Austria the house of regional representatives.

Greater Germany and "Großdeutsches Reich" Edit

In the 19th century before 1871, Germans, for example in the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848–49, argued about what should become of Austria. Including Austria (at least the German-speaking parts) in a future German state was referred to as the Greater German Solution while a German state without Austria was the Smaller German Solution.

In 1919 the Weimar Constitution postulated the inclusion of Deutsch-Österreich (the German-speaking parts of Austria), but the Western Allies objected to this. It was realised only in 1938 when Germany annexed Austria (Anschluss). National socialist propaganda proclaimed the realisation of Großdeutschland and in 1943 the German Reich was officially renamed Großdeutsches Reich. However, these expressions became neither common nor popular.

In National Socialist propaganda Austria was also called Ostmark. After the Anschluss the previous territory of Germany was called Altreich (old Reich).

German Empire and Weimar Republic of Germany, 1871–1945 Edit

The official name of the German state in 1871 became Deutsches Reich, linking itself to the former Reich before 1806 and the rudimentary Reich of 1848/1849. This expression was commonly used in official papers and also on maps, while in other contexts Deutschland was more frequently used.

Those Germans living within its boundaries were called Reichsdeutsche, those outside were called Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans). The latter expression referred mainly to the German minorities in Eastern Europe. Germans living abroad (for example in America) were and are called Auslandsdeutsche.

After the forced abdication of the Emperor in 1918, and the republic was declared, Germany was informally called the Deutsche Republik. The official name of the state remained the same. The term Weimar Republic, after the city where the National Assembly gathered, came up in the 1920s, but was not commonly used until the 1950s. It became necessary to find an appropriate term for the Germany between 1871 and 1919: Kaiserliches Deutschland (Imperial Germany) or (Deutsches) Kaiserreich.

Nazi Germany Edit

After Adolf Hitler took power in 1933, the official name of the state was still the same. For a couple of years Hitler used the expression Drittes Reich (Third Reich), which was introduced by writers in the last years of the republic. In fact this was only a propaganda term and did not constitute a new state. Another propaganda term was Tausendjähriges Reich (Thousand years Reich). Later Hitler renounced the term Drittes Reich (officially in June 1939), but it already had become popular among supporters and opponents and is still used in historiography (sometimes in quotation marks). [25] It led later to the name Zweites Reich (Second Empire) for Germany of 1871–1919. The reign of Hitler is most commonly called in English Nazi Germany. Nazi is a colloquial short for Nationalsozialist, a person who supports national socialism.


Natural boundaries in Alsace include the Vosges Mountains to the west and the Rhine River to the east. The massif of the Vosges gradually gives way eastward to the plain of Alsace, while to the south the region of Sundgau in southern Haut-Rhin rises to the Jura Mountains. Alsace is one of the more fertile regions in central Europe. The hills are generally richly wooded, chiefly with fir, beech, and oak. Annual precipitation is relatively low, ranging from 20 to 28 inches (500 to 700 mm).

Alsace has a rich, highly intensive agriculture characterized by small farms. This is particularly true of the vineyards that dominate the foothills of the Vosges. Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Sylvaner, Auxerrois, and Pinot Blanc are among the notable white wines produced. Colmar is the principal centre of the wine-growing region, whose vineyards extend in a narrow strip along the lower slopes of the Vosges west of the city. Parts of the alluvial plain of Alsace (e.g., west of Strasbourg) are devoted to cereals, but industrial crops are also widely cultivated and include sugar beets, hops, and tobacco. The region is also known for its asparagus and foie gras.

The industrial economy of Alsace is strong and diversified. Textile manufacturing, based in and around Mulhouse, is one of the region’s oldest industries, though now it has little importance. Machinery production, in part related to textiles, and food and beverage industries (milling, brewing, canning) are also long established. More recent industries include automobile assembly and component manufacture, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and telecommunications. Much of the investment in industry originates outside France, notably in Germany, Japan, and the United States. A large number of workers from Alsace commute to factories in Germany and Switzerland. The service sector has grown rapidly in fields such as retailing, business services, higher education, and research. Strasbourg in particular has benefited from this trend.

Outside the Vosges massif, Alsace is densely populated (twice the national average) and has a well-developed urban network dominated by the cities of Strasbourg, Mulhouse, and Colmar. Rural population densities are among the highest in France. A network of motorways traverses Alsace, and a regional airport is located in Strasbourg. There is also an extensive port and industrial zone bordering the Rhine. Apart from its use as a waterway, the Rhine is used to generate hydroelectric power, and a nuclear power station stands on its banks at Fessenheim.

The Alemannic Confederation

The Alemanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who migrated to today's Southern Germany and Switzerland during the 3rd and 4th centuries. There they formed an independent kingdom called Alemannia. It came under Frankish domination after the battle of Tolbiac in 496, and after blood court at Cannstatt in 746 it lost its independence entirely and became a Frankish duchy. In 911, the name Alemannia was changed to Swabia after the Suebi, and older Germanic tribal confederation who had contributed the the ethnogenesis of the Alemanni. The successor duchy of Swabia fractured in 1268. From the 14th century onwards, descendants of the Alemanni would form the Swiss Confederacy, which would expand to cover large Romance-speaking areas.

Though the Alemannic identity disappeared with the dissolution of Alemannia in the early middle ages, the Alemannic lands retained a distinctive dialec and culture. The name Alemannic was eventually reintroduced by Johann Peter Hebel in 1803.

In this alternate TL Alemannic nationalism becomes a prominent movement in southern Germany and Switzerland during the 19th century, with Alemannic nationalists seeking to create a united Alemannic state under the system of government of the Swiss Confederation. Alemannic Confederates launch several armed insurrections the late 19th century, first against the monarchies of Baden and Wurttemberg, and later against the German Empire. In German-speaking Switzerland a political divide is formed between Alemannists and Helvetists. Alemannists emphasize the Alemannic-German origins of the Swiss Confederacy therefore see it as an inherently Alemannic-German entity, the destiny of which is to unite the Alemannic speaking lands. Helvetists, on the other hand, seek to preserve the Swiss confederacy as multi-ethnic entity within its historical borders.

The struggle in southern Germany culminates in a war of independence after WW1 with French support. This leads to the creation of an Alemannic state, the independence of which is confirmed at the Treaty of Versailles. The new state initially covers Baden, Swabia and Vorarlberg. Liechtenstein is annexed without bloodshed in 1921, having abolished its army in 1868 and being largely sympathetic to Alemannism.

The creation of an independent Alemannia leads to Alemannism definitivelly eclipsing Helvetism in Switzerland from 1920 onwards. Switzerland collapses along linguistic lines in 1923, with fascist Italy invading the Italian speaking areas in the south while the French speaking area of Romandy declares independence with the intention to join France. In the end, the Alemannic government comes to an agreement with France. France gains the entirety of Romandy, while Alemannia is given Elsass.

The Alemannic governments makes a concerted effort to solidify the Alemannic national identity. A standardized version of Alemannic German based on the Zürich dialect is adopted as the Confederation's official language and local Alemannic toponyms are adopted as official, as seen on the map (Schwiiz and Eidgnosseschaft aren't spelling errors). Administratively, Alemannia is initially divided into five states (länder) and 35 cantons (kantön). To prevent the area from being influenced by Italian irredentism, the Alemannic government later grants autonomy to the Romansh speaking areas of Switzerland as the state of Rhaetia.

While it has not been especially impactful, a sense of Alemannic identity has certainly existed in OTL. In 1919, 80% of the population of Vorarlberg voted to join Switzerland, though this was not actualized. After WW2 there was a large surge in support for Alemannic nationalism in French-occupied South Baden. A 2010 online poll by the South German Südkurier newspaper found that almost 70% of respondents replied "yes, the Swiss are closer to us in outlook" to a question whether the state of Baden-Württemberg should join Switzerland.

Italian History - timeline


Khalid ibn Walid

Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Oct 1, 2006 9:36:09 GMT -5

Khalid ibn Walid

Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Oct 1, 2006 9:38:15 GMT -5

285 - Dyarchy - Roman Empire partitioned in two when Emperor Diocletian appoints Maximian as a sub-Emperor (Caesar) to rule the western half of the empire, while he continues in the east. Maximian is elevated to full co-emperor (Augustus) the next year.

293 - Tetrarchy - Emperors Diocletian of the East and Maximian of the West each appoint two sub-emperors, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus, for their still-large domains. Empire now divided into four "prefectures":

(1) Prefecture of the East (capital: Nicomedia) ruled by Diocletian (augustus).
(2) Prefecture of Italy (capital: Milan) ruled by Maximian (augustus). Covered Italy and west Africa.
(3) Prefecture of Illyricum (capital: Sirmium) ruled by Galerius (caesar), subordinate to Diocletian.
(4) Prefecture of Gaul (capital: Trier) ruled by Constantius Chlorus (caesar), subordinate to Maximian.

Note the West Roman Empire is henceforth ruled from Milan (Mediolanum). The city of Rome remains the official (but unused) joint capital of the tetrarchy.

312 West Roman Emperor Constantine I ("the Great") converts to Christianity. According to legend, he was converted while marching with his troops to battle, when he noticed a vision of a cross in the sky, with the inscription "In hoc signo vinces" ("In this sign, conquer").

313 - Edict of Milan jointly issued by West Roman Emperor Constantine I and his brother-in-law East Roman Emperor Licinius, ending the persecution of Christians. Property is restored and profession of Christian faith made legal.

Around this time, Constantine donates the Lateran Palace as a residence for the Bishop of Rome (Pope) and builds the Cathedral of St. John Lateran (the 'mother church') beside it.

314 - Death of Pope Miltiades. Ascension of Pope Sylvester I

Emperor Constantine and Pope Sylvester I

314 Council of Arles - condemns the doctrine of Donatism, a puritan disciplinary doctrine popular in Africa that asserted that sacrements and consecrations administered by sinful priests were invalid. This is particularly troubling to the orthodox Christian clergy who, during the prosecutions of Diocletian, had to hide or renounce their adherence to the faith ('apostasy').

314 First Council of Ankara - sets the terms for reconciliation of ex-apostates with the church. The sacrament of penance is outlined here.

318 Arianism. Patriarch Alexander of Alexandria excommunicates Arius, presbyter of Baucalis, for preaching a christological doctrine that asserted that God the Father and Christ the Son were "made of different substances", thus implying that Christ was less-than-fully divine (and thus could be worshipped as a demigod).

324 - Constantine I defeats Licinius. End of the tetrarchy experiment and reunification of the empire under one ruler. Milan remains the effective capital.

325 - First Council of Nicea (First Ecumenical Council) - assembled by Constantine. Arianism is condemned as heretical and the first "Nicene Creed" (assertion of conventional Christian doctrine) is drafted.

- Church fathers with the Nicene creed.

330 - Emperor Constantine relocates to a new capital in the east, Constantinople. This sets in motion the partition of the Roman Empire into western and eastern halves.

331 Arian clergy seizes control of Antioch and deposes the Nicene bishop, Eustathius of Antioch.

335-6 - Councils of Tyre and Jerusalem. Eusebius of Nicomedia, Arian sympathizer and confidante of the Emperor, convenes two church councils to formally readmit Arius to communion with the Christian church. But the new Patriarch Athansius of Alexandria, a radical anti-Arian, refuses to allow it and is banished to Trier on trumped up charges. Marcellus of Ancyra and others are also banished and deposed.

December, 335 Death of Pope Sylvester I. Succeeded by Pope Mark, who dies shortly after. Succeded by Pope Julius I

- Pope Julius I

337 - Death of Constantine I, finally baptized to the Christian faith on his deathbed. Succeeded by his three sons who partition the empire between them - Constantine II in the west, Constans in the center (incl. Italy) and Constantius in the east. Under the influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia, an old comrade of Arius, Constantius will adopt and promote the Arian doctrine in his domains and persecute 'Catholic' (i.e. pro-Nicene) Christian bishops and priests.

338 Eusebius of Nicomedia becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

340 - Council of Rome assembled by Pope Julius I to consider the matter of the exiled pro-Nicene bishops, like Athanasius of Alexandria and Marcellus of Ancyra. Arian Eastern bishops refuse to attend. Finding in the exiles favor, Julius I orders their reinstatement.

341 - Council of Antioch ("Dedication Council") assembled by the pro-Arian Constantius and Patriarch Eusebius. The homoousion clause of the Nicene creed (asserting Christ was "of one substance" with the Father) is dropped (Arians asserted they were different substances) and a semi-Arian "Creed of the Dedication" is drafted.

342/3 - Great Council of Sardica (Sofia) assembled by both Emperors to settle the Arian problem. Dominated by Western bishops, eastern bishops abandoned the council at held a rival pro-Arian one at Philippopolis (Plovdiv). The Sardica Council exonerates Athanasius and other pro-Nicene bishops, and excommunicates some of the ringleaders at Philippopolis.

347 - First Council of Sirmium (Mitrovica) assembled by Constantius condemns the ultra-Arian doctrine of two completely different substances.

351 - Second Council of Sirmium affirms the semi-Arian formula that Christ was "of similar substance" with the father.

351 - With the death of his two brothers, Constantius becomes sole ruler of the Empire. Immediately begins pushing the Arianism on the western half.

353 Second Council of Arles under Constantius's influence condemns the anti-Arian activist Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria.

355 Council of Milan re-condemns Catholic Athanasius. Athanasius is formally deposed as Bishop of Alexandria.

357 - Third Council of Sirmium with Arianism on the ascendant. Condemns both the Catholic ("one substance") and semi-Arian ("similar substance") doctrines and goes for out-and-out ultra-Arian ("different substances"), even going so far as to assert that the Father 'is greater' than the son, thereby reintroducing the concept of the demigod ("Blasphemy of Sirmium").

Council of Ankara under Catholic Bishop Basil of Ancyra issues statement with the "one substance" doctrine suggeted, thus temporarily arresting the slide to full-blown Arianism.

358 Fourth Council of Sirmium overturns Ankara, but steps back from ultra-Arianism, and only allows that God is "similar" to Christ (in "will", not substance).

359 Council of Rimini (in west) and simultaneous Council of Seleucia (in east) are assembled by Emperor Constatius to confirm the decisions of the Sirmium IV. in effect reverses the Nicene council and establishes Arian Christianity as the 'correct' version of Christianity. It is around this time that Arian Christianity will be adopted by practically all the Germanic tribes on the Roman frontiers - Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Alemanni, etc.

360 Council of Constantinople convened under the leadership of tdhe Eusebius's succcessors, Eudoxius of Constantinople and Acacius of Caesarea, confirms the semi-Arian findings of Rimini-Seleucia. The Nicene council is declared void, over the opposition of the orthodox clergy.

361 - Death of Constantius. His successor, Emperor Julian the Apostate, an adherent of Graeco-Roman paganism,
stops promoting Arianism. Catholic clerics persecuted under the previous regime are allowed to return to their posts.

364 Death of Emperor Jovian (Julian's short-lived successor from 363). Empire re-divided between two brothers - Emperor Valentian (West) and Valens (East).

374 - Ascension of Archbishop Ambrose of Milan. A highly influential theologian and activist, St. Ambrose will be instrumental in bringing the Roman Empire back to Catholic Christanity and driving Arianism out of the empire.

375 - The Huns, a Central Asian tribe, reach the shores of the Black Sea, defeating and subjugating the German tribes there (Ostrogoths, Gepids). With Emperor Valens's permission, tens of thousands of Visigoths, fleeing the Hunnish horde, cross over the Danube and settle within the Roman Balkans.

378 - Relations between Romans and Gothic immigrants sour and a war between them ensues. Romans are decidedly defeated at the Battle of Adrianople. Valens is killed and the Goths proceed to ravage the eastern Roman empire.

Succeeding Valens, a Catholic Christian general ascends as Emperor Theodosius I 'the Great of Eastern Rome. Western Rome remains under the control of Valentian's successors, co-emperors Valentian II and Gratius.

381 - First Council of Constantinople (Second Ecumenical Council) convened by Theodosius I, under the leadership of St. Ambrose of Milan, establishing Catholic Christianity as the only Christian doctrine. The Council condemns Arianism and assorted other doctrines as heresy, reinstates the Nicene Creed and finalizes the doctrine of the Holy Trinity (divinity of the Holy Spirit confirmed).

- Emperor Theodosius I and St. Ambrose of Milan (by Van Dyke)

382 Synod of Rome convened by Pope Damasius I to promote the resurgence of Catholic Christianity. The Latin translation of the Bible (the 'vulgate') by St. Jerome of Antioch is commissioned here.

382 - Gothic war ends. Visigoths established as Roman federate tribe and allowed to settle on Roman territory south of the Danube.

391 - Theodosian decrees closing temples and prohibiting pagan worship in the Roman Empire. Catholic Christianity is now official Roman state religion.

392 Death of Valentian II of Western Rome, the last Arian emperor. Theodosius I of Eastern Rome annexes the Western Roman Empire.

395 - Partition of the Roman Empire. Death of Emperor Theodosius I. Empire partitioned between his two young sons: Honorius (Western Empire) and Arcadius (Eastern Roman Empire). This partition will remain permanent. The reign of the young sons will be dominated by military strongmen, Stilicho in the west and Rufinus in the east. The rivalry between the latter two will bring the empires into war with each other.

Partition of Rome (395).

Khalid ibn Walid

Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Oct 1, 2006 11:36:10 GMT -5

Khalid ibn Walid

Post by Khalid ibn Walid on Oct 15, 2006 17:16:33 GMT -5

395 - Still pressed by the Huns and seeing the empire in the hands of two inexperienced youngsters, the chieftan Alaric of the Visigoths (then in the Danubian borderlands) breaks his federate treaty with Rome and moves further inside the empire. He goes on a campaign ravaging Thrace and Greece, meeting little resistance from the disorganized and fractious Roman regents.

400 - Continuing their campaign of plunder, Alaric's Visigoths invade Italy, plunder the Po valley. The imperial residence is moved from Milan to Ravenna.

402 Ravaging Visigoths are finally defeated by a Roman army led by Stilicho at the Battle of Pollentia (in Piedmont) and then again in a follow up battle at Verona. Alaric leaves Italy in 403. Stilicho will subsequently co-opt the Visigoths and deploy them against Eastern Rome.

406 - The Great Invasion With Rhineland garrisons evacuated in the recent wars in Italy, three Germanic tribes, the Swabians, the Vandals and the Alans, pressed from behind by the Huns, cross the Rhine border into Roman Gaul. Challenged by the Franks, a Roman federate tribe (settled on the lower Rhine since 358), they are forced to continue marching on. They head on a great trek westwards across Gaul, and into Spain.

In their wake, the Burgundians cross over to the left bank of the Rhine and settle in the central Rhineland region (capital: Worms) while the Alemanni (another federate tribe, remnants of the Swabians, centered in sw Germany) take the opportunity to seize the area just below them (Alsace).

In the meantime, seeing the chaos in Europe, the Roman commander in Britain declares himself Emperor Constantine III and launches a campaign to seize Gaul. Eventually settles his capital at Arles, while Britain spins away into a squabbling patchwork of Romano-Celtic statelets.

408 - Death of Arcadius of the Eastern Empire. His son as ascend as Eastern Emperor Theodosius II.

408 - Assassination of Stilicho, western Roman regent on orders of Emperor Honorius. His partisans appeal to Alaric for protection. Alaric's Visigoths invade Italy again and force the Roman Senate to appoint a puppet of his own, a certain Priscus Attalus, as rival emperor in Rome. (Honorius remains in control of Ravenna).

409 - Partition of Spain Great invaders arrive in Spain and partition the peninsula between them. The largest tribe, the Alans, got the lion's share, taking Lusitania (Portugal) and Carthaginensis (central Spain), the Silingian Vandals got wealthy Baetica (Andalusia), while the Swabians and Asdingian vandals are huddled into the mountainous Galicia & western Tarraconensis (Asturias).

410 - Visigoth Sack of Rome Going nowhere, ALaric decides to depose Attalus and re-open negotiations with Honorius. But the Roman Senate doesn't cooperate and starts playing divide-and-rule, promoting another Goth, Sarus, a blood-rival of Alaric. In punishment, Alaric's Visigoths besiege, capture and plunder the eternal city. The first sack of Rome by a barbarian tribe.

Visigoths subsequently march down Italy, plundering their way to Calabria, where Alaric will die. Succeeded by his brother-in-law as high chieftan Ataulf of the Visigoths.

411 Angered by the continued Senate-Sarus alliance, Ataulf of the Visigoths forges a counter-alliance with Emperor Honorius in Ravenna. Gothic auxiliaries help Honorius's army defeat the anti-Emperor Constantine III at Arles and recover southern Gaul (northern Gaul remains in the hands of a new usurper, Jovinus). At Honorius's request, Ataulf's Visigoths leave Italy and move into Provence, keeping the new anti-Emperor Jovinus in check.

413 Ataulf's Visigoths defeat and kill anti-Emperor Jovinus of Gaul. In reward, Ataulf is married to Galla Placidia, a daughter of Honorius. But the jealous Constantius, master of the imperial army, intrigues against Ataulf in the Ravenna court. A break ensues and Constantius's navy blockades Provence, hoping the starve the Visigoths out of there. A betrayed Ataulf moves further westwards and resurrects the puppet Attalus as anti-Emperor in Bordeaux.

415 - King Ataulf is assassinated in Barcelona by the late Sarus's agents. Sarus's brother Sigeric becomes king briefly, until he too is assassinated and a new chieftan Wallia of the Visigoths is elected.

416 - Visigothic Aquitaine Wallia of the Visigoths negotiate peace and alliance with Emperor Honorius. They are given the status of Roman federati and granted Aquitaine as their own kingdom (capital: Toulouse). In return, Ataulf's widow Galla Placida is returned to Ravenna, where she is forcibly married to the imperial general Constantius.

418 - Campaign in Spain At Emperor Honorius's request, Visigoths invade Spain and annihilate the Alans and (Silingian) Vandals. The Swabians and (Asdingian) Vandals, sheltered by their northern mountains, survive the onslaught. Their work largely done, Visigoths return to Aquitaine. In their wake, the Asdingian Vandals descend from the mountains, absorb the remnants of the Alans and set up a new kingdom in Andalusia.

419 - Death of Wallia. Succeeded by his illegitimate son as Theoderic I of the Visigoths.

421 - Imperial general Constantius forces Honorius to appoint him co-emperor, but the arrangement will not last. Constantius will die in 422 and Honorius himself in 423. Ravenna patrician Joannes is elevated as Western Roman Emperor, but at the instigation of Galla Placidia, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II intervenes and appoints her young son as Western Emperor Valentian III in Rome. Joannes refuses to abdicate and war ensues. Joannes appeals to the Huns for help.

425 - Eastern Roman army invades Italy and besieges Ravenna. Joannes is betrayed and handed over to them for execution. Valentian III rules alone in the West under the regency of his mother, Gallia Placida. As a conciliatory measure, she appoints Aetius, a partisan of Joannes who had returned with Hunnish auxiliaries, as magister militus of the imperial army of Gaul. The Huns are paid and return home.

426 - Death of Vandal king Gunderic in battle against Visigoths, who had been launching incursions into Spain. His half-brother ascends as King Gaiseric ('the Lame') of the Vandals.

428 - Intrigues by Aetius against his rival, the Count Boniface of Africa, an old favorite of the Roman regent Gallia Placida, prompt a Bonifacius to go into revolt. Looking for an army, he invites the Vandals of Spain to come to Africa.

429 - Vandal North Africa Although they fended off a few lackluster Visigothic attacks, the Vandals realize their position in the wide-open plains of Andalusia is not very defensible and should the Visigoths make a serious effort, they might very well likely meet the same fate as their cousins a decade earlier. So the Vandal king Ganseric accepts the invitation from Bonifacius of Africa and moves his Vandals (and attached Alan remnants) en masse out of Spain to Africa. The Swabians stay behind in Galicia-Lusitania.

c. 430 Aetius's perfidy is soon brought to light in the Ravenna court, and Bonifacius is reconciled with the Roman regent. The invitation to the Vandals is rescinded, but Gaiseric decides to stay in North Africa regardless and goes on a campaign of conquest. Bonifacius's provincial army is defeated by Vandals, who proceed to corner him and lay siege to Hippo (modern Bona St. Augustine will perish during the siege).

431 - First Council of Ephesus (Third Ecumenical Council) convened by Theodosius II. Confirmes Nicaea and declares Nestorianism (a christological doctrine asserting that Christ was "two distinct persons", God and Christ moving seamlessly together, not merely two-natures-in-one-person) as heretical. Pelgainism (a doctrine that minimized original sin) is also condemned.

431 - A joint west-east Roman relief expedition arrives in Hippo and is led by Boniface to a disastrous defeat against the Vandals. Boniface slips back to Italy, the Vandals overrun Hippo. Despite his defeat, he is welcome in the Ravenna court and given the honor of patricius, much to Aetius's displeasure.

431 Franks under king Chlodio ventures out into the Seine basin and the middle Rhine. Aetius rushes up and defeats the Franks at the Battle of Hesdin, rolling them back to the Lower Rhine. A federate treaty with the is negotatied and the Frankish kingdom established with their capital at Tournai.

432 - Huns united under the sole kingship of chieftan Rugila.

432 - Aetius raises an army of German auxiliaries in Gaul and crashes down on Italy. A Roman army led by Bonifacius of Africa defeats Aetius at the Battle of Ravenna, but Bonifacius himself is killed. Aetius goes into exile in Dalmatia.

Khalid ibn Walid

A Difference Of Fate: A Late Roman Timeline

Other than the birth of the 2 imperial sons in 458, the year was important for other reasons, the cencus issued by each Prefecture would come back. In total the western empire had roughly 23 million people, of those about two thirds were of taxable age, or about 15 million people. This population was mainly split between Gaul and Italia where 15 million people lived, Hispania had a further 6 million and Dalmatia the last 2 million.

Tax reform began as well, with the new census this gave an accurate number for how much taxes each region should pay. Corruption was quickly snuffed out, the perpetrators having their wealty seized and put into the empires coffers, any lands they had redistributed. One change was the land tax, Majorian would change this tax so that those who farmed grain would recieve smaller taxes than those with Vineyards, this was put in place to make the west less reliant on the grain from africa. As for the taxes and revenues, Gaul and Italy would supply the west with roughly 500,000 Solidi, or 90,000,000 million Folli, the Follis becoming the standard unit of account during this time, and worth 1/180 of the Solidus. Hispania with its mines and only slighlty smaller population than the former two provinces would bring in 250,000 Solidi, or 45,000,000 folli. As for Dalmatia with its small population and minor industries it brought in 25,000 solidi or 4,550,000 folli, giving the west an annual budget of 148,550,000 folli or 775,000 solidi. However instead the empire was bringing in only roughly 81,000,000 folli.
This dramatic drop in revenue was due to several things mainly including corruption, and tax evasion.

Each prefecture contained smaller regions to make the collection of records and taxes quicker and more efficient, Gaul contained 7 of these Provinces. Each of the provinces who had a govenor would submit the revenue records to the prefecture, the prefect after accepting these records would then send them to the emperor, any irregularities found along the way would then be investigated. Over the years, this system had been abused, to the point that the empire was only receiving half of what it should have been. During Majorians reign this system would be kept in tact but vast corruption purges would bring this system back closer to what it had been before.

In 459 Avitus would die, his son Eparchius Avitus would take his place. To a testament of the corruption purges The empire in 459 would receive 130,000,000 folli in 459.

In 459 the Majorians reformist mind would take full effect. Other than the formerly mentioned Land tax where Grain farmers were taxed less then Vineyard farmers, Majorian would put in a tax for those that were of 20 years old and unmarried or without kids. A tax for those whose wealth or land was worth more than 5,000,000 follis would be put in place, this tax would be worth 5% of this wealth. Initially this tax was evaded by some, but others like Eparchius Avitus (one of the richest men in the west) would support it seeing how it could benefit the empire. This tax would bring a potential 40 million follis into the budget in the future.

Following the change in taxes, would be military reform. In the decades following the decay of the west, soldiers had been paid less in coin, and more in food, this was due to the rampant corruption, in 459 Majorian would announce that soldiers would be paid 600 follis a year. The empire at this time had 60,000 soldiers, 13,000 in Dalmatia, 12,000 in Hispania the remaining 35,000 split between Gaul and Hispania, costing the empire 36,000,000 folli a year in wages for soldiers, a further 20,000,000 follis going to food and equipment.

For recruitment reform, Majorian would put this onto shoulders of both the prefecture and the Magister Militum. They were to come up with the required number of men to replace those soldiers discharged due to age or injury, as well as to come up with a number of men needed to grow the army to an effective operating size. For Hispania this was made to be 15,000, for Gaul and Italia 20,000 each, and for Dalmatia 17,000. Then the recruitment of men was to be placed upon the provinces of each prefecture to come up with the required number of men splitting the weight of recruitment.




Oh no it definitely isnt that easy to solve corruption, in fact you can see there was still some corruption as the empire only recieved 130million follis instead of the full nearly 150million. However it is my opinion that corruption breeds under weak leadership like that of Valentinianus and Honorius, which escalated the situation of the west drastically, after all if theirs strong leadership that hits hard on corruption really your only option is to not be corrupt or kill those that would stop you from being so, like Aurelian. So no the corruption problem is not silved but definitely has been stamped down pretty good.

That last issue were if you could read you were promoted, that was something that was not really special just to the late era, but yes you are right, its not the best idea, but positions like those in administration were often filled readily enough by those who could read. For the military even though everything in this chapter sounded like it went through very easily it wont especially on the military side, we may see some better recruitment due to a steady wage being re introduced into the army, but it will definitely be a problem in the coming wars.


I get the feeling Majoran is about to go full Aurelian.

Assuming that he can stabilize the empire somewhat, how much longer could the WRE last? On that matter without Justinian's attempts at reconquest of the west could the ERE use that money and manpower on fixing the eastern situation? Or would they just do what they just blow it all on some fancy churches?


The opening weeks of the year 460 would bring joy to the Vandal King as his grandson was born, Huneric son of Hilderic and Eudocia eldest daughter of Valentinian. The birth of Huneric is generally thought to be the beginning of the leadup to the Roman Vandal war in 9 years.

In May of this year Majorian and Anthemius would meet in Dyrachium meeting in the middle of the two capitals to signify that they were equals, with their two eldest children. This was a major event for the two emperors to meet something that was nearly unprecedented. It was during this meeting that 5 year old Theodosius would be betrothed to 5 year old Alypia, and likewise 10 year old Athemiolus to 3 year old Julia Placidia. These matches were made with promises of greater cooperation between emperors, something that would come to harm one of these matches.

It was also during this 2 week meeting that the emperors discussed many things, such as Majorians rise to power, his reforms, and either of their campaigns they had expierenced, and the empires future. A major contributing factor in these discussions was the Vandals, whose major fleet and history was a threat to both empires. Majorian at this time had slowly been moving funds to build a fleet to counter the vandals however in its effectiveness the fleet was minor movement as these funds were often better used elsewhere like rebuilding infrastructure. However Anthemius promised that the east with its vast amount of wealth would provide some funds to help build the fleet and would even send some of its own fleet to help the west.

The last day of this meeting of greats would be on May 16th, a day that would be a day of fanfare and celebration in the city as festival and games took over the city for the day. Anthemius would return east were his son Procopius Anthemius would be born in June, his next and last child being Procopius Romolus born in the opening year of the Vandal war.

Majorian would return west to Rome were he would overwatch the building of the western fleet, it was during November of this year that Majorian and Placidias last children would be born, as twin boys would be born in a highly stressful birth, the result of which would make Placidia unable to bear children again, these Boys were Julius Valerius Gallus, and Julius Valerius Valens.

However there were other matters afoot during the year of 460. After the loss of 10,000 men Genseric had lost roughly a third of his army. Knowing that the future held war for his people he began training as many able men as he could, he also began making alliances, or trying to. King Theodoric of the Visigoths was firmly in the Roman corner after they helped put him on the throne of his people, and he also held a grudge for the disfigurement of his sister at Genserics hands. However there was another Ambitious member in the Visigoth Royal family, someone who was willing to overlook old family grudges. It was during the summer that one of Genserics nieces would be married to Euric of the Visigoths in secret, and soon to be Euric King of the Visigoths, as later that year Theodoric would be killed by supporters of his brother, they sent Theodorics head to Ricimer claiming that Theodoric was plotting against Rome.

For his part Ricimer would basically accept this without question. Now some would wonder why Ricimer did not question this, well Ricimer had his own schemes, and Thorismund as a pro Roman king was a threat to those plans, the more infighting between the Visigoths the better. See Ricimer was if anything Ambitious, he had used the situations he was given to rise up the ranks. But with Aegidius as the Emperors Magister Militum he could go no further. Instead of trying to build up a credible resume to become the next Magister Militum, he began plotting. However his plans didnt just stop at being Magister Militum, there were young imperial hiers to manipulate as Emperors.

Ricimer had picked an uphill fight, and his first move would be to eliminate pieces of the game board. Nepotianus was not only loyal to Majorian but also an able commander and had recently used his 13,000 strong Hispanian army to stop a raid from the Vasconian Baugudae. Unfortunately this competent man would die in February of 461, to poison administered by a agent of Ricimers. In the aftermath and with the death of the Hispanian Comes, a force of 10,000 Bagudae would invade the Ebro Valley, Ricimer used half of his army to move into Hispania and stop this Baugudae raid, while at the same time filling the power vacumn in the region with his quick movements. The news of the Comes death followed by Ricimers victory were close on eachother arriving in Rome. Majorian was suspicious, he ignored Ricimers message that he had the region under control, and sent Severinus to take Nepotianus place. However the son of Nepotianus, Julius Nepos and commander of the Emperos Palitini took his fathers death hard, and in fact swore that Ricimer must have killed him to have acted so quickly.

Majorian for his part would heed Nepos's voice, and recalled Ricimer for questioning, Ricimer would travel to Rome, but passed the Emperors questioning, saying he had been in southern gaul overwatching the Visigothic situation. This only added further conviction to Nepos as if the new King had really stopped his brother from plotting what was their to watch. Weary of Nepos who was right in his conviction Ricimer tried to have him assassinated however it failed, but the assassin did escape, keeping his secrets safe. After the assassination attempt Nepos would send spies to Gaul, only one would come back with Damning evidence, the final act for Ricimer was beginning.

News of Ricimers betrayal would spread quickly, hearing it himself Ricimer tried to turn his men against the emperor, after all had he not lead them to victory in Hispania, lieing through his teeth he declared Nepos had brought fake evidence before the emperor trying to find some sort of vengeance for his fathers natural death. However his troops were more loyal to Majorian than Ricimer and he barely escaped their swords on horseback. Ricimer would ride to the Burgundian King Gundioc his brother in law hoping for help. However Gundioc would not risk his family for the power hungry Ricimer, and instead closed his cities gates on his brother in law. However the Emperors men were chasing the ex general and before he could cross into Alemanni territory Ricimer was caught, brought back to Rome in chains. Ricimer would be tortured for days before he would tell the truth, afterwhich he was executed by Nepos who would finally get vengence for his fathers death nearly a year after it had happened.

Nepos would gain more from the betrayal of Ricimer, replacing him as Magister Militum per Gallias surpassing his uncle Marcellinus who was Comes of Dalmatia. Replacing Nepos as Majorians commander of his Palitini was Syragius son of Aegidius.

During these 2 years taxes would grow and wane, recieving 140,000,000 folli in 460, before dropping back to 135,000,000 folli in 461. In 462 however a sharp drop was taken as only 120,000,000 were taken. Though there was some lost taxes to the Baugudae raids, it seemed that there was a slow progression of losses as a corrupt Magistrate in Gaul was taking tax money and taking lots of bribes. This magistrate would be caught by both the Emperor as he read tax reports and Ecdicius Avitus, who would catch the anomalies as some cities were taxed far greater then they were supposed to be and others taxed less. The magistrate would have all his wealth consficated and be sent into exile, which wouldnt last long as the Franks brough Nepos his head after he stole some goods and then tried to sell it at an exorbitant amount in another town. However in the east a power was starting to rise in the Ostrogoths.







With the promotion of Nepos to Magister Equitum per Gallias Majorians Regime was in a strong position with trusted men in the highest positions. However while politcally the Emperor was in a strong secure position, that did not mean the empire was in the same position. Between the powerful Visigoths and Vandals, the peace was fragile, and with Franks, Alemanni, Rugii waiting to pounce at the borders, and the Ostrogoths in the east, the empires position was fragile.

In Gaul Nepos was implementing a plan that him and Majorian had made, recruiting Eurics brother Fredricus as a Comes in the Gallic army, with the plan to elevate him as a leader, to rival his brother. Fredricus was given command over a group of Fedoratti including Visigoths, Alans, Burgundians, as well as Romans numbering 5,000 men, and put in charge of the Amorican Front in northwestern Gaul. During the summer of 463, Fredricus would decisively defeat a Baugudae Raid into Roman territory, in a brilliant battle crushing a force double his own numbers. In the following months Fredricus would march into Baugudae territory, defeating another smaller Baugudae army, before taking several towns. With the wind down of the campaigning season Fredricus would garrison the minor territorial gains he made.

Elsewhere in the Empire, Majorian was making reforms, Majorian passed some laws on allowing coastal cities to bear arms as to stop any piracy problems, which had grown with the lack of an imperial fleet. As well as some laws focused towards the issues of wills and the death of those with lost wills, as well as laws to preserve the monuments of Rome. Majorian also issued a law to restore the municipal Administration, restoring the role of defensor civitatis, this magistrates job was to defend the interests of the citizens against the public administration particular matters of fiscal matters. In effect Majorian was proving a competent Emperor and the west was at a tenous peace, the first time in many years.

However Majorian didnt just focus on passing laws. He was planning Campaigns. While the situation in Gaul was tenous, Majorian planned a campaign with Marcellinus the Comes Dalmaticus, and uncle of Nepos. This campaign would begin in 464, and was to be a joint campaign between the Emperor and Comes against the Rugi who inhabited Noricum. However near the end of Winter, Majorian and Placidias, youngest son, the 3 year old Julius Valerius Valens passed away due to a sickness, causing Majorian to delay his joining of the Campaign. Marcellinus would continue without his Emperor in the spring, and would be joined by men from the Italian Comitatenses.

In Gaul the spring was greated by the army of Fredricus marching into Baugudae Amorica, where he quickly stormed several towns and stormed the city Darioritum (Vannes). For his success the Baugudae leader who had been gathering his army, refused open battle, instead used a schorched earth policy, and lead Fredricus northwest away from Roman territory deeper into Amorica. The Baugudae leaders goal was to weaken the Roman supplies, as well as to weaken the romans with constant hit and run attacks. When the Baugudae leader did finally accept battle the numbers were 10,000 Baugudae Militia, against, 4000 of Fredricus battle hardened Veterans. Fredricus would once again lead his men to a stunning victory, and even killed the Baugudae leader in single combat near the end of the battle, after this battle Fredricus was hailed as king by his Visigothic soldiers. However as stunning as this victory was Fredricus had lost a significant amount of men, and was forced to pull back to Roman territory, looting all the way back.

Euric however had been watching these events unfold, and had not taken kindly to hearing his brother being called king, nervous of Roman intervention, Euric gave the order, and in the Fall of 464, Fredricus a Regal, and Noble Visigoth loyal to the romans, died of Poison. This left the last two sons of Theodoric I alive, Euric and his youngest Retimer, who fled to Nepos.

In Noricum Marcellinus invaded Rugii territory with 10,000 of his Dalmatian soldiers who were some of the very best in the empire, along with 3,000 Burgundians, and 2,000 Ostrogoth Mercenaries, and some 10,000 Italian soldiers. Reaching Iuvavum within 3 weeks, Marcellinus put the city to siege. With the city lightly defended it fell within Days, sparing the population of looting, Marcellinus left a garrison of 3,000 men before moving northeast towards Lauriacum. Soon after news of the Rugian King Flaccitheus and his army reached Marcellinus. Flaccitheus had gathered a substantial army at Castra Regina, a city built around an old legionary fortress that dated back to the time of Marcus Aurelius. Flaccitheus army was reported to have numbered some 25,000 , numbering similar to Marcellinus's own force, and news was that he was marching to Iuvavum.

While Marcellinus was confident in his army, with reports being that Flaccitheus army numbered the same as Marcellinus original numbers, he fell back to Iuvavum, to gather his garrison there, so that he could have his full force in the field, and marched northwest, with his scouts ranging almost 50 miles ahead to try and find the enemy. Both forces converged upon the Inn river, and it fortunate that Marcellinus decided that he would need his total force, as the Rugii numbers were closer to 32,000 men.

The two armies sat stationary across the river from eachother, outside of Artillery range. Both armies scouts, cavalry and skirmished along the river looking for places to cross the river. However for the most part the river was to deep, especially for men. Marcellinus would be the first to move, his scouts finding a bridge a few days march to the south, and leaving his camp during the night, force marched his men looking to reach the bridge before the Rugii could block his crossing. While the Rugii, were able to catch up to the romans at night, Marcellinus and his men would continue their late night marches, marching nearly 30 miles in a day and building their camps in the early afternoon and sleeping early while the Rugii who spent their entire day marching were slowly falling behind. As their camps were not built until night, and so to try and follow the romans when they marched would result in tired exhausted men.

However on the final days march both forces left camp early, the Romans having got a full sleep and meal, the Rugii still tired and eating cold meals. They marched hard, both forces cavalry racing towards the bridge were they would clash. The Roman-Ostrogoth Cavalry numbered 2,000, and the Rugii were of similar numbers, the fighting was intense, but the Roman cavalry was able to fight the Rugii off, killing their captain and took the bridge successfully. However holding the bridge would mean nothing if the Rugii were able to reach it at the same time as the romans. While both forces were marching, the rugii had fallen perhaps a mile behind the romans, Marcellinus had sent a portion of his force some 5,000 men ahead early on in the night, .the cavry had passed these men in the morning. These 5,000 men would cross the bridge after the cavalry battle securing for Marcellinus a bridgehead on the other side. These 5,000 men began building a trench, rampart and palisade, to fortify their position if the Rugii and Marcellinus arrived around the same time, which they would, the Rugii, only being at most half an hours march behind the romans. At Noon, the romans reached the bridge, 20 minutes later the Rugii reached it as well.

With the infantry and cavalry, a total of nearly 7,000 men across the river, Marcellinus lead the rest of his army across. And marched these men to the end of the palisade his other men had created, in the twenty minute wait before the Rugii arrived Marcellinus managed to successfully cross a further 8,000 men, leaving the rest to reinforce him during the battle. When Flaccitheus and his army arrived their was no early battle skirmish, or waiting. The rugii, slowed checked thier lines, and charged. Both sides before the moments of impact threw their javelins or Plumbatta darts, and formed shield walls.

Marcellinus to try and prevent a serious outflanking by the Rugii whose line was still longer than his own, had been forced to thin his lines to 4 men, while the ruggi lines were easily double that, and in some places triple. As the lines met with a resonating crash, this formation difference became very apparent, with Marcellinus center beginning to bow inwards. While his flank was still being pushed hard and the Rugii beginning to envelop it, Marcellinus split his cavalry, half of which was armed in the style of Cataphracts with lances. Marcellinus lead half to his left flank were his forces were being surrounded and charged into the rugi on the rear of his men, preventing most of the wrapping manouver, these 900 men and their general, would be forced to hold the flank against the enemy until reinforcements crossed the bridge. However in the center was where the situation was even more precarious. As the center fought, and men died on both sides, they were still being pushed back, and a significant U was forming in the center, nearly at the breaking point. Even as reinforcements arrived, it still was barely holding. This is where the remaining cavalry was crucial. Their leader a young man named Flavius Aurelius Silvanus, formed a wedge some 100 paces behind the infantry ready to charge. Then finalt at the very center of the roman formation, it broke, the roman army was split into 2 halves, and the Rugii, broke through. Only to be charged by 900 Roman light Cataphracts. The Ruggi who broke through the roman formation were instantly shattered. The charging lancers were extremely effective, their charge slaying and trampling hundreds as they pushed forward, allowing the roman line to close up behind them. On the palisade the battle was going much better for the romans as they were in a advantageous position. The rugii were forces to climb the earthen rampart before trying to fight over a short wicker palisade. The rugii casualties were so much in this position that the ditch in front began to fill with their dead.

However on the flank, Flaccitheus lead his cavalry around the flank, his cavalry only numbering 1200 after the previous cavalry battle, he had been hesitant to comit them early. However by this point they were to late as Roman reinforcements rallied the left flank, where the fighting was some of the harshest. Even Marcellinus was forced to away from battle, having recieved a thigh wound that needed a doctor immediately. Though it is noted that Marcellinus continued to give out orders and watched the battle unfold from Behind its lines, still acting as a general even as a doctor was trying to stich up his leg.

The battle continued on for over 3 hours like this until the entirety of the Roman force crossed the river. By which point the battle was in a deadlock with thousands dieing and neither looking like it might win. The exhausted rugii had been unable to capitalize while they had the numbers, and at this point they were far more exhausted than the romans. It was at this point that Flavius Aurelius Silvanus comes back into the battle. The young commander, had managed to extricate himself and only 10 of his men from the battle having to pull back through roman lines on foot as their horses were dead. Grabbing horses from the rear, Silvanus took command of what was left of the roman cavalry after it had been able to pull back from the left flank, roughly 600 men. After talking with Marcellinus it was decided that he would flank the enemy and try to put an end to the battle, the enemy cavalry not a worry having lost most of its numbers when it joined the battle, being only a guard for their king.

Silvanus and his men began thier circuit route of the battlefield, and halted upon reaching the flank, checking ranks and forming a wedge, preparing themselves and thier exhausted horses for a charge. As they charged a horn sounded, a Rugii horn, sounding the fall back. Flaccitheus had spotted the Roman cavalry, and knowing his men would be unable to hold it off on the flank, he tried to preserve his army by pulling them back before the cavalry hit. Unfortunately it backfired causing confusion, it only added to roman charge which tore into his armies flank. It was a total route. The exhausted romans only followed for half a mile, before halting and returning to the bridge.

The battle of the Inn River was over. Roughly 16,000 Rugii were killed, and some 6,000 romans lost. The majority of the survivors were all injured in one way or another. The rugii and their king would retreat back to Castra Regina, which they would fortify, rebuilding the old roman walls, and even adding to them, when the romans would arrive it would be a fortress. However the romans stayed near the battlefield. They buried their dead with honours and dumped the Rugii dead into mass burials. The army would await supplies and wait for the numerous injured to get better. Silvanus became a hero to the army, and Marcellinus though severely injured, became one of the most respected generals of Majorian, having fought one of the toughest battles since Aetius and Attila at the Catalaunian fields.

The army would receive a suprise when their next shipement of supplies and food arrived. Emperor Majorian finally arrived in Noricum. Majorian had with him his entite Palitini guard, some 8,000 men. Arriving at the battlefield, Majorian would make a speech to the army, thanking them for their sacrifices upon the battlefield and that he was honored to be able to call them soldiers of Rome, with the fresh supplies he had brought, and cattle that were procured from the nearby area, he allowed them to feast and have the next week to rest, his Palitini would take their places on guard. For Marcellinus he would give him honours and rewards. The army would stay were it was for the next 2 weeks.

After those two weeks Majorian sent Silvanus northeast to capture Lauriacum with 10,000 men, while Marcellinus and Majorian would go North to Castra regina with the remaining 17,000 men. Silvanus would expierence no fighting with his city surrendering immediately.

However Majorian and Marcellinus after arriving at Castra Regina nearly a month a month and a half after the battle of the inns river, would find a fortress garrisoned with nearly 12,000 warriors. The fortress was also a city, and it was along the Danube making it impossible to surround and prevent supplies from going in. However that didnt mean they couldnt try. Majorian would surround the city with a wall, upon which he placed Onagers, and Ballistae, and rained upon the place perpetual fire. During the day, the siege engines fired rocks into the city, at night, they fired flaming pots into the city. Not once did Majorian try to take the city, and niether did Flaccitheus try to sally forth as his army was smaller than the romans. Finally, a two weeks into the siege, Flaccitheus opened negotiations seeing that Majorian would not try to take the impressive walls he had built. At first , Majorian demanded all territory south of the Danube, and that the Rugii become fedoratii. However the Rugii king simply laughed and told him that he still held the walls of his city, and if he wanted that much Majorian could try to take them.

Majorian presented his army in full to the city, however he hesitated seeing the enemy walls covered in soldiers, and decided that he would continue his bombardment. A further week passed, before an agreement was made. Rome would take any territory south of the Danube and east of the Inns river. The rest would remain Rugian, and the Rugii would become Fedoratii. Even though it was not much gain. Majorian considered this a deal, the war had weakened the Rugii who had lost nearly half their army, and they had gained territory and made another tribe Fedoratii.

After this Majorian going into 465, and beyond would begin centering his focus on Africa.

Sorry for the long break, which was longer than intended. This chapter ended up being different from what was my first intentions, with it originally being 463-468. However i felt that the Rugian war and especially the Battle of the Inns river needed some special attention. Thanks everyone for the support in the Timeline and I hope you are enjoying it!

Muslim World: The True Faith Timeline

So i think that here comes my first response wall of the year.

Yeah, eventual deforestation + heavy plough will certainly play in favor of Islam in the region, i even suspect that is fairly possible that Islam ends up speeding the process. Especially for the slavs, since them already use the heavy plough for at least 200 years (and the germans just are recorded using it by 720).

I already said that alcohol is a non-issue (especially considering the schools that accept urf as a source of jurisprudence) as far as use in agriculture is concerned (and depending on which school is patronized, as far as use in general is concerned). But pork, i really didn't thought about that, so it seems that will not be a big of a problem, though any german-slav muslim could just use the "we need that to survive" argument against any calls of heresy.



Here is aa good thread that discussed the possibility of producing rubber in late medieval europe:

Rubber trees wouldn't exactly grow well in medieval Europe. The Brazilian rubber tree is a tropical species, as are some of the analogous species which lived in Mesoamerica, and wouldn't grow well if at all in Europe.

However, there is another possibility. The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz), native to parts of Central Asia (Kazakhstan and a couple of its neighbours) is a perennial species which can be tapped to produce a latex that functions like rubber. All that needs to happen is for this plant to be discovered and spread to Europe.

Talus I of Dixie

To understand the evolution of Al-Andalus in the Age of Collapse, one must understand the rise to power of Fennas ibn Zari, the founder of the dynasty that would rule the westernmost area of Islam for centuries to come, and having as its main factor its take on the power, the infamous First Ibrahimite Rebellion, which also had great effects on Al-Andalus.

Fennas ibn Zari was a high-class zenata berber from the Maghrawa tribe, Fennas was one of many berbers who fought in Uqba's campaigns against the Frankish Kingdom, and he owned land in northern Al-Andalus around the small village of Filabuhira [1], being himself a descendant of those who fought in the Umayyad conquest of the Visigoths half a century ago.

Following the Abbasid Revolution, Fennas supported the provisional government of Uqba on the peninsula while it went on its campaigns for North Africa. Nevertheless, the tension in the region's air was clear, with Syrian junds who would be loyal to the Umayyads not rebelling against Uqba for the sheer force of his existence.

The truth is that, after his campaign against the Franks and exceptional victories at Navas de Firajana, Karkasun and Dayjun (which led to Faransa's subsequent conquest), Uqba achieved what no other ruler had achieved before in Al-Andalus: Enough prestige to put all petty lords in line and effectively rule all of Al-Andalus. And until his participation in the Abbasid Revolution, he made good use of these powers, starting a series of projects in Qurṭuba, including the start of construction of Masjid Qartabat al-Kabir [3] and a renovation of part of the city. Other projects started were the construction of a road connecting Qurṭuba to Karkasun (passing through Al-Madin, Bulākah, Tulaytulah, Mulinah, Qalāt Al-Hawyrfah, Saraqusta, Lāridah, Bakhus, Barshiluna, Jayruna and Arbūnah until the last one [4]), the re-establishment of several roman aqueducts throughout the region and the construction of the Barshiluna and al-Laqant shipyards, where Uqba would soon build his fleet in the west, which would participate in the future Battle of Al-Sahil Jafu [5]. Thus, the two years between the conquest of Faransa and the Abbasid Revolution were of relative prosperity in Al-Andalus.

Following the departure of Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj al-Manṣūr [6] to Ifriqiya, the government of Al-Andalus was left under the hands of his son, Hidayatullah ibn Uqba al-Wadi [7], who convened a coalition with local Berbers (including Fennas) to maintain stability in the region. Shortly after the fall of the Umayyads, Uqba would return even more glorified to Andalus, and spend his last 2 years of life and government making small trips across the peninsula while helping the people and commanding his last raids against the Kingdom of Asturias, in such, where his last battle took place in 744, the Battle of Lanjeru [8] (or Llangréu in Christian sources), where Uqba allegedly faced an asturian army under the command of Arius, a nobleman of visigothic descent, and defeated him, subsequently sacking the nearby area.

The death of Uqba on February 4, 746 established an informal week of mourning among the andalusians, and his burial would gather over 50.000 people in Qurṭuba. His deeds would be extremely romanticized and passed on, with Uqba quickly becoming a symbol of what all andalusians wanted to be and expected their rulers to be.

Thus, with the background explained, let's to what really matters.

After the death of Uqba (who thanks to his favors to the Abbasid Caliph effectively ruled Ifriqiya as well), the government of the two western provinces was provisionally under Hidayatullah al-Wadi in Andalus and under Khalid ibn Hamid al-Zanati [9] in Ifriqiya after his confirmation as governor by Caliph al-Saffāḥ.

But before al-Wadi could do much, Ibrahim started his rebellion at Al-Hafar, and, after that, Al-Andalus would sink in war too.

The first rebellion of the Syrian junds took place in Ġarnāṭah [10], but quickly spread like wildfire across the peninsula, leaving the unprepared "regent" surrounded in Qurṭuba, and, after 3 months of siege, the junds would capture the city. However, the berber lords in the north responded by electing Husayn ibn Sawaya, Lord of Sūriah [11] as commander of an 18.000 Berber army to march south against the rebels, but they would be defeated by 12.000 Arabs under Tujib ibn Hisham at the Battle of the Muje Mounts [12], after that, was not long before the Berbers began to fight each other, and the coalition quickly collapsed.

Fennas ibn Zari was a great politician despite not having mastered vast lands, and initially used his skill to his liking, allying with the Lord of Balansiyyah Al-Markaza [13] in a successful attack against Sūriah. Following this, along with muladie supporters, Fennas murdered the lord and seized his lands, and subsequently secured the loyalty of several christiannobles and berbers in the Central March.

After this, in 748, Fennas campaigned against the asturians in Galicia, defeating them at the Battle of al-Bawabat [14] and subsequently restoring Muslim control over Galicia. In the midst of all, the berber lords continued to war with each other and the junds at the same time, enabling the Ibrahimites to slowly advance through the Spanish Levant, but in 750 reinforcements from the Caliph would stop the ibrahimite advances, at least for a while.

Following his campaign against the asturians, Fennas established a strong dominion over his lands, consolidating what he had so far gained. His initial rule (and, well, all his rule after that) was based on a compromise between the berbers, the local christians and the muwalladūn, which allowed Fennas significant manpower and legitimacy for what would be considered a warlord. By 750, Al-Andalus would be divided between the possessions of Fennas ibn Zari in the center-northwest - centered on Balansiyyah Al-Markaza - the ibrahimites in the south, Lord Abdelhamid ibn Hayyan's possessions in the northeast - centered in Saraqusta - Fortun ibn Qasi's possessions in the Upper March - centered on Tawdila [15] - and a series of small warlords along the Spanish Levant.

With the arrival of 22.000 Abbasid troops at Taraghuna [16] in April 750, Fennas decided it was time for action, and quickly gathered 23.000 troops to invade the Banu Hayyan, resulting in the Battle of Qal'at 'Ayyūb [17], where Fennas ibn Zari defeated the enemy with decisive use of Iberian infantry, after which the lords who submitted to Abdelhamid defected en masse, resulting in the Siege of Saraqusta, which would take 6 months until the fall of the city.

At the same time, the Abbasids subjected the warlords to the Levant, which turned out not to be too difficult since several lords simply surrendered to the Abbasids. By 751, the entire Spanish Levant was a abbasid stronghold, and obviously the Ibrahimites wasted no time in creating opposition. Thus, an ibrahimite offensive under the command of Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri [18] in 751 defeated the Abbasid army (which had 8.000 more Berbers) decisively in the Battle of al-Ghar [19], forcing the remaining troops to stand in Taraghuna, being surrounded. As Khalid ibn Hamid was preparing to cross the Strait of Jabal Ṭāriq with an army of 32.000 soldiers.

Fennas, after defeating the Banu Hayyan, raised more soldiers from the new lords submitted and with an army of about 50.000 troops, intervened against the ibrahimitas, subjugating the lords of Northern Catalunya and facing Yusuf in Taraghuna, the meeting would take place on the 23rd day of the 3rd month in 135 AH [20], and would be the first great battle fought by Fennas.

The battle would be fought in the vicinity of the small village of Rādis [21], just a little north of Taraghuna. Fennas' army contained about 30.000 infantry (split between berbers and iberian natives) and 20.000 cavalry (almost all berbers) while Yusuf had about 25.000 infantry and 10.000 cavalry (almost all Arabs).

Fennas organized its center by placing the iberian infantry en masse with the berbers beside, while on both flanks were located the berber cavalry. Already Yusuf used a formation similar with his arabs, but more manipulated with the use of independent subdivisions of the army (something inherited from the junds), in addition, his more experienced corp was placed (next to him) in the rear to be able to reinforce any needs.

The first moves of the battle were taken by Fennas, who ordered an advance from his center against the enemy line, which soon developed into a draw of attrition, although the berber infantry was somewhat fragile, the iberians in the center managed to deliver the goods.

Soon, Yusuf sent his cavalry on the left flank to cross the nearby brook and flank the enemy through the mountains, but Fennas knew of the danger the mountains posed to him and the enemy, and sent his own cavalry to defend the passages, and as soon as the enemy passed, the berber cavalry quickly ambushed the enemy, and after a brief conflict of cavalry, quickly defeated the arabs, and after that the berber cavalry headed towards the ibrahimite rear.

As soon as Fennas received message of success the ambush, he sent his left flank cavalry to provoke his counterpart in battle, and after holding a conflict where he was at a certain disadvantage, the berber cavalry managed to defeat the arab with support from the other wing arriving at the rear, and after that victory, both were free to crush the ibrahimite infantry from the rear, and the subsequent result was nothing less than a rout.

Most of the arab force would be killed or surrendered, and the main ibrahimite force in Al-Andalus would be lost in one day, but Fennas would not be easy, shortly after the victory, he surrounded Taraghuna and sent the abbasid commander a proposal: Fennas would submit to the Caliph in Kufa and in return, the Abbasids would make Fennas Emir of Al-Andalus. After the message traveled through the Mediterranean and the response returned, Fennas would have his proposal accepted and soon the remaining 3.000 Abbasids in Taraghuna joined his army.

Well, in 752, Fennas would not have much opposition, since the ibrahimitas in Andalusia were without their head (Yusuf was the governor of the ibrahimites in Al-Andalus) and without an army (since the ibrahimite manpower was quite "limited"), Fennas would campaign for the Spanish Levant before making an attack on Qurṭuba.

The regions of Al-Gharb [22] and around Qādis [23] were invaded by Khalid ibn Hamid's troops, so the situation of the ibrahimites was quite hopeless, but even so, between 300-1200 soldiers made a last stand in Jabāl al-Shuhada [24], where after inflicting severe casualties on enemy troops, ended up being completely defeated. Following this, Fennas marched freely to Qurṭuba, establishing himself as the Emir of Al-Andalus, passing 753 establishing his control over the remaining areas.

With that, the Banu Zari settled in the power of Al-Andalus, Fennas definitely had a lot of work to do, but the seeds for what would become Al-Andalus were planted with the rise of Fennas, nicknamed Al-Muahad [25] for the leadership of Andalus.

Watch the video: The Alamanni: history of a Germanic people (August 2022).