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The Ancient Armenian Alphabet – the Hiksos Alphabet as a Basis for the Mashtots Letters
The information agency “Azat Dzayn” (Free Voice) presents to its readers how Mesrop Mashtots has rediscovered the Hiksos or the ancient Armenian alphabet, which has become a basis for the Armenian letters. For approximately 20 centuries lie between the periods of these two alphabets, but as it is seen, the time couldn’t totally erase the most ancient alphabet, which was created by our ancestors. This alphabet has become a basis for the creation of the Indian Brahma alphabet, Phoenician, Semitic and all the alphabets of Asia, as well as for the creation of African alphabets.
Below we will present to you a passage from the book of the great Armenologist Suren Ayvazyan “History of the Culture of Ancient Armenia” dedicated to the origination of the Armenian letters.
“The studies of the recent years have clearly shown that in Ancient Armenia there have really existed pre-Mashtots letters and solid evidences, which prove it appear daily.
About the existence of the ancient Armenian alphabet there are definitely mentioned by the Armenian historians of the IV-V centuries – Koryun, Ghazar Parpeci, Movses Khorenatsi. In those times, when the church deified the personality of Mashtots and mentioned in its blessings that divine forces have participated in the creation of the alphabet, those modest scientists, Mashtots’ pupils and the companions-in-arms strived to pass to the coming generations the true nature of Mashtots’ endeavor.
Koryun writes that the ancient Armenian letters were accidentally found in the digest of the letters of ancient nations by the Assyrian bishop Daniel. Koryun calls those letters that were certainly found, “the letters of the Armenian alphabet”. Another historian – Ghazar Parpeci also evidences that “pious man Daniel bishop had Armenian letters”.
Movses Khorenatsi reports that the delegate of king Vramshapuh – Vahrich “went to Daniel and thoroughly studied the letters, which were invented in the ancient times”.
The interesting report of the medevial historian Vardan the Great (XII-XIII centuries) is noteworthy. He was the first person to deny the legends spread about the creation of the alphabet by Mashtots from “nothing”. Here is that passage from Vardan the Great’s “Tiezerakan (Cosmic) History”. The existence of the Armenian letters in the ancient times was proven in the times of king Levon, when in Cilicia there was found a coin, on which there was written “the name of Haykazuni pagan king. The shortcomings of right this alphabet were added by the restorer and regulator, that is by Mesrop Mashtots”.
It is not accidental that Vardan the Great has called Mashtots “a restorer and a regulator”, because he has really restored the ancient alphabet. He has taken it as a basis, then he has added it up and has adjusted.
Besides, Movses Khorenatsi reports that the alphabet, which Daniel has found, couldn’t express the binding sounds of the Armenian language, that is it had no vowels, because of which it was forgotten for some time.
Vardan the Great evidences that “the letters of the ancient times, which were found by Daniel, being insufficient to express the sounds of our language, were forgotten and they started to use Greek, Syrian and Persian letters”.
Thus, Mashtots has eliminated the shortcoming of the ancient Armenian alphabet – the absence of vowels. But here also Mashtots hasn’t invented the vowels from “nothing”. He started his search. Here is how Movses Khorenatsi describes his creative moment: “And he (Mashtots) sees whether in a dream or awoken in the depth of his heart the right hand, which appears before the eyes of his soul, which writes on the stone the letters Ա, Ե, Ի, Ո, Ու. As on the stone, like on the snow there appeared the traces of the letters”.
There is an interesting detail, which is mentioned by Khorenatsi. The letters appeared to Mashtots written on the stone. There is such an impression that by especially highlighting the creative mind of Mashtots, Khoreatsi consciously wants to bring the reader to the idea that the creation of the alphabet is done by Mashtots, who has found the necessary outlines of the letters on a stone. And there are the letters, only the vowels, which are considered a discovery by the historians, the solution of the problem of the creation of the alphabet.
This same shortcoming, the absence of vowels, shows the relation of the ancient alphabet with Hiksos or ancient Armenian alphabet, for which the indifference towards the vowels is so characteristic and based on which there were created the alphabets of the Semitic world.
It’s very difficult to find in the human history a more unique phenomenon as the Hiksos world. Amazing is the gift of the creative genius of Hiksos people to the mankind: from the very first alphabet of the world to the first chariot, from iron casting up to the first calendar with a stable year as compared to its short political life.
The Hiksos have appeared in Egypt approximately in 1710 B.C. between the period of the Middle and New Kingdoms and have stayed there until 1580 B.C.
Only one historian is known to the science, who has described their invasion to Egypt from the Armenian Highlands. He is the first to report the name of the foreigners. This historian is the Egyptian priest Manethon (IV-III centuries B.C.). The most reliable source about the Hiksos is the Armenian translation of “Chronology” by Eusebius of Caesarea.Caesarea is the last and the only historian, who has directly used Manethon for writing the history of Hiksos. Here we will not speak about the Hiksos in detail. Let’s only mention that in the word “Hiksos” there strikes one’s eye the Armenian ethnic term “hay” (an Armenian). At that time, in the Armenian Highlands there has existed Hayasa state – the cradle of Armenians. The Hiksos have invaded right from that big center, where the iron casting process was invented at the beginning of the II millennium B.C. The biggest help of the Hiksos is that there were the first to create an alphabet.
After the excavation in Metsamor and the discovery of hieroglyphs there, it’s totally obvious that the Hiksos had hieroglyphs in their motherland and they could have come to the idea of the creation of the alphabet not in Egypt but in their motherland in Armenia. That is the Armenians came to the idea of the alphabet based on their hieroglyphs and have done this heroic deed right in Armenia.
Thus, the 18 th century B.C. was the century of the creation of the first alphabet, which had no vowels and which originated the alphabets of Asia, Africa and Egypt. The comparison of the Hiksos alphabet, the ancient Armenian hieroglyphs and the hieroglyphs found in Metsamor show their full similarity and the undoubtedly genealogical connection. There was also restored that crucial fact, which is of vital importance for the study of the ways of the Armenian alphabet.
The similarity of the word-stocks of the Armenian and the Hiksos, the chariots, which were taken to Egypt, the material for which was originated in the surroundings of the mountain Ararat, the founding of the capital Avaris on the shores of Nile, the familiarity of the Hiksos with iron casting, which was firstly invented in the boundaries of the Armenian Highlands, and finally, the most important thing beside these facts, the genealogical connection of the alphabets of the Hiksos and Armenian hieroglyphs, probably confirm our point of view.
In 1967, there was proven that the Indian Brahm alphabet (XV century B.C.) has originated from the Hiksos alphabet and has a number of similarities with the hieroglyphs found in Metsamor and the hieroglyphs in the ancient Armenian manuscripts.
As it is known, the Brahm alphabet has its influence on the originationof the ancient Arabic numerals. There is also distinctly marked the genealogical connection of the numerals of Brahm alphabet and the Hiksos and ancient Armenian hieroglyphs.
The comparison of six vowels and semi-vowels (with which Mashtots has added the Armenian alphabet up) with the five vowels (ա, ե, ի, ու, ո՝ւ)of Babylon cuneiform writings is very interesting. The Mashtots vowels almost fully coincide with the Babylon cuneiform writings. The alphabet lacked these Babylon cuneiform writings of vowels, which were inscribed on the stone and to which Mashtots added a sound.
Thus, the new Armenian alphabet created by Mashtots comes to the invention of those vowels, which are similar to the Babylon cuneiform writings and to the completion of the lack of vowels in the ancient Armenian (Hiksos) alphabet. As it is known, unlike the Babylon cuneiform writings, the Egyptian hieroglyphs (“the alphabet of hieroglyphs” by Fr. Champollion) don’t have vowels, which was characteristic of the indifference to the vowels and naturally, in the alphabet, which was created on the basis of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, they should be absent.
The Phoenicians or perhaps the Greek were the first to connect the principle of the Hiksos alphabet with the Babylonian principle of sonority, while in Armenia, because of the absence of interjections yielded its place to the cuneiform writing and then to the Greek, Assyrian and other writing, which had only one advantage and had many shortcomings related with the expressive peculiarities of the Armenian language.
Connecting the principle of the alphabet with the principle of interjection was late among Armenians. The ancient form of the Armenian lettters is explained by the fact that the ancient alphabet of the world – the future form of the Hiksos alphabet lies in its basis.
The political situation has contributed to the process of forgetting the Armenian alphabet. It is known, that the Hiksos, by conquering Egypt, introduced there the calendar, they created an alphabet. Despite the fact that the Hiksos calendar and alphabet were obviously progressive, the Egyptians refused it after the expulsion of the Hiksos. The return to the ancient writing meant for the Egyptians restoration of national form of cultural development, as one of the terms of the independent political development.
That’s why the return to the ancient Armenian alphabet by Mashtots, adding vowels to it and the appearance of a new, fully complete alphabet was of immense importance for the life of the Armenian nation.
The invention of the alphabet is closely related to the development of the production forces, which was succeeded by iron casting. In other words, the alphabet appeared due to iron, the system of hieroglyphs was made easier and it was adjusted to the practical requirements.
The alphabet was called that way – “the writing of the iron century”, written with iron.
However, the ancient Armenian writing was not forgotten everywhere. They developed in separate pagan Armenian temples, in Assyria, Palestine, Egypt, where there were no political forces, which reigned in Armenia.
Let’s mention that more than 20 centuries lie between the Hiksos and Mashtots alphabets”.
History of Armenia
The Armenians, an Indo-European people, first appear in history shortly after the end of the 7th century bce . Driving some of the ancient population to the east of Mount Ararat, where they were known to the Greeks as…
When conflict with the Armenians of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region within Azerbaijan broke out in February 1988, these elites provided the leaders both for the oppositional Azerbaijan Popular Front and for their communist opponents. Violent protests and interethnic clashes targeting both Armenians and Azerbaijanis in the late 1980s, anti-Armenian…
republics—Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia—in May 1918. The Moscow government did not intend to respect Transcaucasian independence for long. In April 1920 the Azerbaijan government surrendered to the double threat of invasion by the Red Army and rebellion in Baku. In December 1920 the formerly Russian portion…
1991 to present
…by the Transcaucasian republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, and by Moldova. (The remaining former Soviet republics—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
…and to encroach upon the Armenian principalities of Vaspurakan, Taik, and Ani along the easternmost border of the Byzantine Empire. Armenian historians of this period speak of their adversaries as “long-haired Turkmens armed with bow and lance on horses which flew like the wind.” The Armenian princes appealed to Constantinople…
…Great) on the throne of Armenia, and, extending his hegemony over this kingdom and over eastern Asia Minor, he organized pressure on the last Seleucids. A meeting with Rome, which had already formed a “Province of Asia” in Asia Minor, became inevitable and took place in 92 bc on the…
…Hurrians from what is now Armenia, and Indo-Europeans from Central Asia. This period marked the end of the formative phase of Mesopotamian civilization.
Hostilities were exacerbated when Armenia, lying to the north between the two realms, converted to Christianity and thus seemed to menace the religious integrity of Persia. If small-scale warfare during the 4th and 5th centuries rarely erupted into major expeditions, the threat to Rome nonetheless remained constant, demanding vigilance…
…of the kingdom of Lesser Armenia in Cilicia, and by the activities of the Crusader states. Foreign relations and skillful diplomacy became of paramount importance for the Byzantines. John II tried and failed to break what was becoming the Venetian monopoly of Byzantine trade, and he sought to come to…
…Iberia) in the north and Armenia in the south. The culture and ethnic character of both can be traced to the period of the breakup of the Hittite empire in the 12th century bc , and both were converted to Christianity early in the 4th century ad .
…placed on the throne of Armenia by his Parthian overlord, and the small kingdoms of northern Mesopotamia—Adiabene, Gordyene, and Osroene—gave allegiance to Mithradates. Mithradates II died about 87 bce , although he may have died earlier, since the period after 90 bce is dark and a usurper named Gotarzes may have…
…to dispute Roman control of Armenia. Thus it can hardly be said that Augustus settled the eastern frontier. Missions were sent to the East repeatedly (Agrippa, 17–13 bc Gaius Caesar, ad 1–4 Germanicus, 18–19), and Armenia remained a problem for Augustus’ successors: Tiberius successfully maintained Roman influence there, but Gaius…
…Turkish cession of territory to Armenia, abandoned claims to spheres of influence in Turkey, and imposed no controls over Turkey’s finances or armed forces. The Turkish straits between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea were declared open to all shipping.
…and Turkey comprised two battlegrounds: Armenia in the west, Azerbaijan in the east. While the ultimate strategic objectives for the Turks were to capture the Baku oilfields in Azerbaijan and to penetrate Central Asia and Afghanistan in order to threaten British India, they needed first to capture the Armenian fortress…
Ancient Civilizations and Armenians – Graham Hancock
Graham Hancock is an English writer and journalist, an author of over 20 books and two films. Hancock’s books with a total printing of 5 million have been translated into 27 languages. One of his most popular works is ‘Fingerprints of the Gods’.
As Hancock said, during his activity, he has been the most shocked by the tragic past of Armenia.
“I thought that the world has been the most unfair towards the Armenian people, but nonetheless, Armenians managed to withstand in such difficult conditions,” said Hancock.
“My biggest acquisition is the warmth, honesty, and hospitality of the Armenian people that I have witnessed here. It seems that the world has really forgotten about Armenia, but Armenia has much to show to the world, and the purpose of my visit to Armenia is to show the world what it doesn’t know yet.”
The English researcher concluded that Armenia holds a big part of the history of the humanity. As he said, the work of his past 20 years was dedicated to revealing the secrets of ancient civilizations that the humanity had lost over time. There is a multitude of circumstances and events that had made people forget their actual mission, and Hancock thinks that we need to restore that memory.
Hancock considers Armenia a key in uncovering the history and restoring the memories of the most ancient times. Armenia will play an important role in Hancock’s future works, and he plans to visit the country again.
“I think that Armenia can actually teach the world something about the forgotten past, about the human spirit,” said Hancock.
Vazgen Gevorgyan, who had invited Hancock, said that they visited Zvartnots, Etchmiadzin, an ancient settlement in Agarak, as well as a pyramid covered with soil near Dvin. Hancock was shocked to learn that Armenians are not capable of presenting the world with such treasures.
Then, they visited Syunik, Ukhtasar, the ancient observatory Karahunj, an ancient settlement in Tatev, and the Goris Museum showcasing beautiful stone artifacts, the history of which is still covered with mystery.
“The research of the latest years has directed me to countries such as Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico, the US, the Bahamas, the Canary Islands, Spain, Malta, Egypt, and I can’t even say how many times I have been there,” said Hancock.
“I have toured around Turkey, Central Asia, India, Indonesia, Cambodia, the whole Japan. I lacked an important element prior to arriving in Armenia, there definitely was something that I didn’t understand. In antiquity, an indeed terrifying event happened 11-13 thousand years ago,” remarked Hancock, speaking of a global cataclysm.
“Armenia is the place where the new civilization began after the catastrophe. Your ancestors have studied stars and understood their purpose. The visit to Karahunj was highly impressive for me, and it is an exceptionally interesting and ancient observatory. Most of the people think that those megalithic stone structures exist only in Europe, but yours is much older. It was also of great interest to me to see the Dvin pyramid. We do not know how old this pyramid is or who built it, but it is truly a miracle.”
Hancock mentioned that he had seen a large number of pyramids in his life, but he had never seen a technology that allows for building pyramids on mountains.
“First of all, we need to approach the pyramid of Dvin seriously. We need to determine what it has inside. It may have rooms, and it is of high importance for the specialists to thoroughly study it and uncover everything. Another thing is Karajunj and cave paintings, and also the settlement discovered near Tatev where the view is obscured by a forest, but when one looks into it even superficially, they may realize that the dwellings of gigantic people are hidden there.”
Translated from a Russian source Video with English Subtitles
Graham Hancock in Yerevan. Noyan Tapan Information Center Գրեմ Հենքոքը Հայաստանւմ
Depending on the region of Romania where the legends come from, there are different names for giants. In the Boziorul area, giants are known as “Tartars” (“tartari”), for example. A number of unusually tall skeletons have been uncovered at Scaieni, in Buzaului Mountains. For instance, when locals tried to plant apple trees on a hill, they accidentally discovered humanoid skeletons of over 2.4 meters (8.2 feet) tall along with pottery fragments
With Rosia Montana being a mining area, a number of interesting discoveries have been unearthed there over the years – one of the most interesting being a skeleton of a 10 meter (32.8 feet) tall giant which was found in 1976.
About 5,500 years ago, an underground gallery was constructed in the region by the Agathyrsi. In February 2012, a group of geologists followed the gold vein in the same place. They kept digging until they ended up at the base of the gallery.
To their utter surprise, they found a gravestone which was definitely not made of common rock. The geologists took a sample, and the laboratory results revealed that the components of the tombstone included 55% 50 karat gold dust, 15% granite dust and 30% Wolfram.
Also, the analysis revealed that the composite rock had been made using a type of technology unknown today The Giants have been discovered in Scaieni in Buzau County, Mariuta in Calarasi County, Persani Mountains, Polovragi, Piatra Craiului, Tara Hategului, Cetateni beneath Negru Voda Monastery, and in many other places. Maramures, the Fortress of Oncesti (“Cetatea de la Oncesti”) was believed to be the home of the giants – ROMANIA.
Over 1000 accounts of seven-foot and taller skeletons have reportedly been unearthed from ancient burial sites over a two-hundred-year period in North America. Newspaper accounts, town and county histories, letters, scientific journals, diaries, photos and Smithsonian Ethnology reports have carefully documented this. These skeletons have been reported from coast to coast with strange anatomic anomalies such as double rows of teeth, jawbones so large as to be fit over the face of the finder, and elongated skulls, documented in virtually every state.
Off the California coast, ancient articles are many. Thousands of giant skeletons have been reported with blond or red hairstreaks.
The occupation dates more than 30,000 thousand years ago and would have ended there about 11,000 years ago. This story attracts the attention of tourists who visit the strange Ralph Glidden museum on Catalina Island
From the human scale to that of the Carthaginian giants, giants’ fossils of all sizes have been identified until now.
The most incredible discovery took place near Carthage when the city still existed 23 centuries ago: the diggers unearthed two 36 ft skeletons!
Near Agadir, Morocco, a prehistoric workshop tool was unearthed dated to 300,000 years.
Among other things, there were two axes with a weight of 17.6 lb and grasping requires the hand of a giant at least 13 ft.” (source) In Texas, the Valley of the Giants, Dr CN Dougherty reports that they found “hundreds of dinosaur tracks of different species and in each case, they were accompanied by traces of giant human footprints.” Not to mention the discovery near Valence (France) in 1456, a skeleton that measured more than 7 meters.
“Sharing pastures with the enemy” in Armenia’s borderlandsArmenian and Azerbaijani bases near Nerkin Khndzoresk on either side of the Goris-Qubatlu border (Photo: Syunik News)
While the fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan has ended, uncertainty prevails in Armenia’s borderlands, where residents now live side-by-side with Azerbaijan’s Armed Forces stationed on a border that for decades was considered porous.
Under the November 9 trilateral ceasefire agreement ending the 2020 Artsakh War, Azerbaijan gained control over a number of territories, including three districts, Zangelan, Qubatlu and Kelbajar, that had previously served as a buffer zone between Armenia and Artsakh. Modern GPS systems and old Soviet-era maps were deployed to delimit the new international boundary between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Consequently, lands that for three decades had served as pasture for villagers from the Armenian provinces of Syunik and Gegharkunik are now patrolled by Azerbaijani soldiers. Local residents and officials have resounded calls of human rights violations arising from the presence of the Azerbaijani military in the areas where civilians pursue their daily activities.
On February 14 the Office of the Human Rights Defender of Armenia Arman Tatoyan shared a video of Azerbaijani soldiers firing small and large caliber weapons in the immediate vicinity of the Agarak and Yeghvard villages of the Kapan community. The soldiers are stationed approximately half a mile away from the village of Agarak. The office says it receives alerts from the residents of Kapan villages of Azerbaijani military discharging firearms on a regular basis.
Russian border guards patrolled the area the next day to register the shooting. A new base of Russian peacekeepers has been established near Agarak in order to monitor the border. This incident represents one of many recorded by Armenia’s Human Rights Defender in which the security of border residents is jeopardized by the close proximity of Azerbaijani soldiers.
Since the 1990s, villagers have crossed the border into Artsakh to graze their cattle. The border between Armenia and these districts has hardened with the return of these territories to Azerbaijan, restricting villagers’ access to former pasturelands. As villagers adapt to the new working conditions, the proximity of Azerbaijani soldiers to their farmlands has resulted in property rights violations.
Sheep graze in Nerkin Khndzoresk near the Azerbaijani military post (Photo: Syunik News)
In one encounter recorded on February 11, Azerbaijani troops stole 173 sheep from a farmer from the village of Khndzoresk in the Syunik province. While the farmer’s livestock were grazing, several approached the area controlled by Azerbaijani soldiers, where they were historically accustomed to grazing. The animals were returned following negotiations by Armenian border troops.
The Human Rights Defender’s office has repeatedly declared that the ongoing border demarcation process must take into account the protection of the rights of residents of border settlements, including the rights to life, property and physical security. “All of these once again confirm that in the immediate vicinity of Syunik communities, and on the roads connecting those communities, there should not be any Azerbaijani military forces,” Tatoyan stated following the shooting near Agarak. “The presence of these forces seriously endangers the rights of Armenian civilians, disturbs their peace and peaceful life.”
In light of the geographic changes following the end of the war, 39 settlements in Syunik and Gegharkunik have received the status of border communities. The 14,000 residents of these communities will be the beneficiaries of the social assistance program currently in place for 38 border settlements in the Ararat, Gegharkunik, Vayots Dzor and Tavush provinces. Under the program, residents’ real estate tax is reimbursed by the government along with half of their electricity, irrigation water and natural gas usage. School textbooks are also provided to students free of charge. The villages recently designated as border communities include Davit Bek in the Kapan community, which was the target of several attacks during the war, and Vorotan and Shournoukh in the Goris community, where several residents lost their homes in the course of the border demarcation process.
Residents of other communities are petitioning for their villages to be included in the list. Deputy Mayor of Goris Irina Yolyan expressed her hope that the exclusion of Karahunj and Khndzoresk, the site of the recent animal theft, represented a technical error by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. “ It is impossible to bring the enemy under the noses of residents and pretend that everything is fine,” she wrote . “The residents of these villages are forced to share their fields and pastures with the enemy. In Khndzoresk, Azerbaijanis forbid villagers from managing their own fields. Cattle must be taken to graze, but where? The situation is the same in Karahunj. People constantly resound calls that the border demarcations are being carried out with unfair mechanisms they are losing territories, and the enemy stands just a few meters away.”
International attention will remain on Syunik as the route connecting Nakhichevan and Azerbaijan is constructed through Meghri under the terms of the recent agreement to unblock regional transport and economic corridors. Azerbaijan’s president Ilham Aliyev provoked concerns when he referred to the route as the “Nakhichevan Corridor.” Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Anna Naghdalyan refuted this claim, stating , “ Any road or communication route passing through the territory of Armenia will exclusively be under the sovereignty and jurisdiction of Armenia.”
In the international arena, the Armenia-European Union Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) will enter into force on March 1, 2021. The agreement outlines bilateral cooperation between Armenia and the European Union (EU) in a wide range of spheres including economic and trade relations, judicial reform and scientific advancement.
CEPA was signed on November 24, 2017 at the Eastern Partnership Summit in Brussels and has provisionally applied since June of 2018. On February 10, 2021, the EU notified Armenia that it had completed the ratification process by all of its member states.
Notably, CEPA includes the possibility of moving toward a visa-free regime between Armenia and the EU with the continued implementation of the 2014 Visa-Facilitation Agreement . It also promotes energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources in Armenia, partly through the closure and safe decommissioning of the Medzamor nuclear power plant and its replacement with new capacity to ensure the country’s energy security.
CEPA also references the Artsakh conflict, asserting the EU’s commitment to the “lasting settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh (Artsakh) conflict, and the need to achieve that settlement as early as possible, in the framework of the negotiations led by the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs” and on the basis of “the territorial integrity of States, and the equal rights and self-determination of peoples.”
Since 2009 Armenia has been a member of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) with the EU. The goal of the EaP is to “ accelerate political association and deepen economic integration” between the EU and its neighbors in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus through a “mutual commitment to common values” including democracy and human rights, the rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development. Armenia has also been part of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) since 2014 with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The ratification of CEPA comes at a low point in Armenian-EU relations. Based on an opinion survey conducted in June of 2020, positive public opinion of the EU was on the rise in Armenia at the time. That month 60-percent of people reported trust in the EU as compared to 51-percent trusting in the EAEU. However, public opinion of the EU has significantly deteriorated in light of the recent war and discontent with the lack of European intervention in the conflict. Meanwhile Armenian relations with Russia have strengthened with the signature of the trilateral ceasefire agreement and subsequent economic agreements.
In 2020, trade with EU countries accounted for 18-percent of Armenia’s total trade. The EU is Armenia’s second biggest market with a 21.9-percent share in total Armenian exports and a 19.5-percent share in total Armenian imports. To contrast, in 2020 trade with EAEU countries accounted for 31.7-percent of Armenia’s total trade. Trade with Russia alone accounted for 30.3-percent of total trade.
Mysterious Finds In Armenia – Giants of Nairi
Anthropologists, scientists and independent researchers have been discovering remains of tall people in the mountains of Armenia for many years. Today, residents of many villages of Armenia are convinced that there have been entire cities of giants in the distant past.
Numerous tombs found in Gyumri, Lchashen, Khot, Yeghvard, Goshavank, Ohanavan, and other settlements might somewhat confirm that statement.
After conducting series of studies, doctor of historical sciences and anthropologist Maria Mednikova discovered, as she considers, evidence of presence of giant people in mountain regions of Armenia 5000 years ago.
12-meter-high, 600 ton hewn megaliths have been discovered near the village of Agarak, Syunik province, Armenia. Local legends say that once there has been a large city inhabited by giants. Could myths about the giants, who are part of many mythologies, turn out to be true?
Here is what the medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi (Armenian: Մովսես Խորենացի) cited in his famous book “The History of Armenia” (5th century):
“The first Gods were fearsome and majestic, and were behind the greatest blessings in the world: the beginning of the earth and its settling by people. From those people a generation of absurdly huge giants has separated. One of them was Hayk, a famous and brave leader, and an accurate bowman.”
Armenians consider the founder of the legendary Haykazuni dynasty Hayk (Հայկ) their ancestor, who, according to the legend, had a giant height and defeated the Babylonian king Bel.
Cyrus the Great
After the decline of the Kingdom of Urartu, Armenia was taken over by Cyrus the Great’s Achaemenian Empire. Armenia restored independence under the Artaxiad Dynasty, but fell under Roman rule that forced them to send Armenian troops to fight for the Romans in the Roman-Parthian War.
In 12 AD, a new dynastic family—the Arsacids, related to the Persian royal family—came to the throne. The Romans continued to intervene and after years of warfare, Armenia was made a province of the Roman Empire. The Sasanid dynasty of Persia joined the fray, and Armenia found itself divided between Rome and Persia.
How many churches are there in Armenia?
This question is the same as “How many statues are there in Italy”? It is impossible to list religious monuments in Armenia because each region is full of thousands of churches, chapels and monasteries. Take a random hiking trail in Armenia and explore the monuments en route. You will be surprised by the number of monuments found in the gorges, cautiously hidden in the forests, inside the cracks of the rocks or perched on top of impregnable mountains. Throughout its history, Armenia was ruled by different local principalities that owned different regions so very often they invested their wealth in church construction. Besides, the vernacular beliefs connected with the cult of local saints in different local communities paved the ground for construction of the numerous chapels dedicated to them.
Dio Cassius, Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin – c. 155 – c. 235 AD
In his book Roman History, Cassius Dio describes the epic conquest of Armenia by Lucius Lucullus and his battle in Tigranakert located in Artsakh against the Armenian emperor Tigrannes the great.
Nevertheless he did seize Tigranocerta when the foreigners living in the city revolted against the Armenians for the most of them were Cilicians who had once been carried off from their own land, and these let in the Romans during the night.Cassius Dio – Roman History