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Mirage III vs MiG-21, Six Day War 1967, Shlomo Aloni

Mirage III vs MiG-21, Six Day War 1967, Shlomo Aloni


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Mirage III vs MiG-21, Six Day War 1967, Shlomo Aloni

Mirage III vs MiG-21, Six Day War 1967, Shlomo Aloni

Duel 28

During the Six Day War the Mach 2 Mirage III and MiG 21 were the fastest and most advanced fighter aircraft available to each side, with the Israelis using the Mirage and the Egyptians, Iraqis and Syrians the MiG 21.

The clashes between these two fighters during the Six Day War were significant on two levels - for their impact on the fighting itself, and as a rare example of a clash between aircraft from the first generation of Mach 2 fighters armed with some of the earliest controlled air-to-air missiles. The second of these is of the most interest, the Israeli air force having effectively won the air war with their pre-emptive strikes on Egyptian airfields at the start of the conflict.

One recurring theme in the history of military aviation pops up once again in this book. Time after time the pilots of newer faster aircraft had to find a way to take advantage of their speed when fighting slower but more manoeuvrable aircraft. This happened over the Trenches of the First World War, in the skies over Poland in 1939 and repeated during the Second World War, and yet on each occasion the solution appears to have to be rediscovered! Once again here the Israeli Mirage III pilots found themselves struggling to target much slower aircraft, and once again the same solution was evolved - attacking from above and from a distance, taking advantage of the extra speed to win the fight before your opponent knows you are there.

The overwhelming feeling on both sides here is of disappointment with the weapons systems installed on these high speed fighters. A limited number of unreliable homing missiles that rarely hit were combined with cannon with limited amounts of ammunition to produce fighters that could spend very limited time in combat. The Israeli missiles were perhaps the most disappointing, and all but one of their victories over MiGs were won using the cannon.

This is an unusual entry in this series in that the small number of head-to-head fights between the two aircraft allows the author to look at all twenty five of them, allowing for a detailed examination of the most interesting dog fights.

Chapters
Introduction
Design and Development
Technical Specifications
The Strategic Situation
The Combatants
Combat
Analysis and Statistics
Aftermath
Further Reading

Author: Shlomo Aloni
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 80
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 2010



Mirage III vs MiG-21, Six Day War 1967, Shlomo Aloni - History

Shlomo Aloni
Mirage III vs. MiG-21: Six Day War 1967
Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2010
Category: Israel Air Force - History

Rating: 4-Stars


Mirage III vs. MiG-21 is another well-executed addition in a long line of collaborative books between author Shlomo Aloni and the Osprey Publishing house. The book traces the introduction of both the Mirage III and the MiG-21 into operational service, including a description of each aircraft and its armament, as well as the growing pains as each aircraft was introduced into their respective armed forces. The book is supplemented by excellent photography, pilot interviews, color illustrations, and a tabulation of the individual air-to-air engagements - including the dates, aircraft, and pilots involved. I particularly appreciated the color illustrations for each cockpit, outlining the controls and instrumentation arrangement, as well as the maps illustrating air base locations and flight routes.

The book includes first-hand accounts from both Israeli and Egyptian pilots, as well as Israeli assessments from flight test of a captured MiG-21. All told, another outstanding addition to Shlomo Aloni's long line of exceptional books.


  • Publisher &rlm : &lrm Osprey Publishing (20 June 2012)
  • Language &rlm : &lrm English
  • Digital &rlm : &lrm 80 pages
  • ISBN-10 &rlm : &lrm 1782000623
  • ISBN-13 &rlm : &lrm 978-1782000624

About the Author

Shlomo Aloni has authored dozens of books and hundreds of articles covering Israel Air Force heritage and Middle East air warfare history.

Jim Laurier is a native of New England and lives in New Hampshire. He attended Paier School of Art in Hamden, Connecticut, from 1974–78, and since graduating with Honours, he has been working professionally in the field of Fine Art and Illustration. He has been commissioned to paint for the US Air Force and has aviation paintings on permanent display at the Pentagon.

Gareth Hector is a digital artist of international standing as well as an aviation history enthusiast. Gareth completed the battlescene and cover artwork in this title. He lives in Perthshire, UK.


Contents

Israel's victory in the Six-Day War left the entirety of the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula up to the eastern bank of the Suez Canal under Israeli control. Egypt was determined to regain Sinai, and also sought to mitigate the severity of its defeat. Sporadic clashes were taking place along the cease-fire line, and Egyptian missile boats sank the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat on October 21 of the same year.

Egypt began shelling Israeli positions along the Bar Lev Line, using heavy artillery, MiG aircraft and various other forms of Soviet assistance with the hope of forcing the Israeli government into concessions. [22] Israel responded with aerial bombardments, airborne raids on Egyptian military positions, and aerial strikes against strategic facilities in Egypt.

The international community and both countries attempted to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict. The Jarring Mission of the United Nations was supposed to ensure that the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 242 would be observed, but by late 1970, it was clear that this mission had been a failure. Fearing the escalation of the conflict into an "East vs. West" confrontation during the tensions of the mid-Cold War, the American president, Richard Nixon, sent his Secretary of State, William Rogers, to formulate the Rogers Plan in view of obtaining a ceasefire.

In August 1970, Israel, Jordan, and Egypt agreed to an "in place" ceasefire under the terms proposed by the Rogers Plan. The plan contained restrictions on missile deployment by both sides, and required the cessation of raids as a precondition for peace. The Egyptians and their Soviet allies rekindled the conflict by violating the agreement shortly thereafter, moving their missiles near to the Suez Canal, and constructing the largest anti-aircraft system yet implemented at that point in history. [22] [23]

The Israelis responded with a policy which their Prime Minister, Golda Meir, dubbed "asymmetrical response", wherein Israeli retaliation was disproportionately large in comparison to any Egyptian attacks. [22]

Following Nasser's death in September 1970, his successor, Anwar Al-Sadat, continued the ceasefire with Israel, focusing on rebuilding the Egyptian army and planning a full-scale attack on the Israeli forces controlling the eastern bank of the Suez Canal. These plans would materialize three years later in the Yom Kippur War. Ultimately, Israel would return Sinai to Egypt after the two nations signed a peace treaty in 1979.

Various military historians have commented on the war with differing opinions. Chaim Herzog notes that Israel withstood the battle and adapted itself to a "hitherto alien type of warfare." [24] Ze'ev Schiff notes that though Israel suffered losses, she was still able to preserve her military accomplishments of 1967 and that despite increased Soviet involvement, Israel had stood firm. [25]

Simon Dunstan notes that, although Israel continued to hold the Bar Lev Line, the war's conclusion "led to a dangerous complacency within the Israeli High Command about the resolve of the Egyptian armed forces and the strength of the Bar-Lev Line." [19] On the tactical level, Kenneth Pollack notes that Egypt's commandos performed "adequately" though they rarely ventured into risky operations on a par with the daring of Israel's commandos, [26] Egypt's artillery corps encountered difficulty in penetrating the Bar-Lev forts and eventually adopted a policy of trying to catch Israeli troops in the exterior parts of the forts. [27]

The Egyptian Air Force and Air Defense Forces performed poorly. [26] Egyptian pilots were rigid, slow to react and unwilling to improvise. [28] According to U.S. intelligence estimates, Egypt lost 109 aircraft, most in air-to-air combat, while only 16 Israeli aircraft were lost, most to anti-aircraft artillery or SAMs. [28] It took a salvo of 6 to 10 SA-2 Egyptian anti-aircraft missiles to obtain a better than fifty percent chance of a hit. [28]

July 1, 1967: An Egyptian commando force from Port Fuad moves south and takes up a position at Ras el 'Ish, located 10 miles south of Port Said on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal, an area controlled by the Israelis since the ceasefire on June 9, 1967. An Israeli armored infantry company attacks the Egyptian force. The Israeli company drives off the Egyptians but loses 1 dead and 13 wounded. [29] However, another source claims that an Israeli attack on Port Fuad was repulsed. [19] According to Zeev Maoz, the battle was decided in favor of the Egyptians. [30]

July 2, 1967: The Israeli Air Force bombs Egyptian artillery positions that had supported the commandos at Ras Al-'Ish. [31]

July 4, 1967: Egyptian Air Force jets strike several Israeli targets in Sinai. An Egyptian MiG-17 is shot down. [32]

July 8, 1967: An Egyptian Air Force MiG-21 is shot down by Israeli air defenses while on a reconnaissance mission over el-Qanatra. Two Su-7s equipped with cameras are then sent out to carry out the mission, and manage to complete several turns over Sinai without any opposition. Two other Su-7s are sent for another reconnaissance mission hours later, but are attacked by Israeli Air Force fighter jets. One Su-7 is shot down. [32]

July 11–12, 1967: Battle of Rumani Coast – The Israeli Navy destroyer INS Eilat and two torpedo boats sink two Egyptian torpedo boats off the Rumani coast. No crewmen on the Egyptian torpedo boats are known to have survived, and there were no Israeli casualties. [33]

July 14, 1967: Artillery exchanges and aerial duels erupt near the Suez Canal. Seven Egyptian fighter aircraft are shot down. [34]

July 15, 1967: An Israeli Air Force Mirage III is shot down by an Egyptian MiG-21. [35]

October 21, 1967: Two missile boats from the Egyptian Navy sinks the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat with anti-ship missiles, killing 47 sailors. [23]

October, 1967: In retaliation to the sinking of the Eilat, Israeli artillery bombards oil refineries and depots near Suez. In a series of artillery exchanges throughout October, the Egyptians sustain civilian casualties. Egypt evacuates a large number of civilians in the canal region. [36]

January 31, 1968: Five Israeli soldiers were wounded and one Israeli and two Egyptian tanks were destroyed in a clash in the canal zone. Israeli and Jordanian forces also exchanged fire without known casualties. [37]

March 21, 1968: In response to persistent PLO raids against Israeli civilian targets, Israel attacks the town of Karameh, Jordan, the site of a major PLO camp. The goal of the invasion was to destroy Karameh camp and capture Yasser Arafat in reprisal for the attacks by the PLO against Israeli civilians, which culminated in an Israeli school bus hitting a mine in the Negev. [38] However, plans for the two operations were prepared in 1967, one year before the bus incident. [39] When Jordan saw the size of the raiding forces entering the battle it was led to the assumption that Israel had another goal of capturing Balqa Governorate to create a situation similar to the Golan Heights. [40] [41] Israel assumed that the Jordanian Army would ignore the invasion, but the latter fought alongside the Palestinians and opened heavy fire that inflicted losses upon the Israeli forces. [42] This engagement marked the first known deployment of suicide bombers by Palestinian forces. [43] The Israelis were repelled at the end of a day's battle, having destroyed most of the Karameh camp and taken around 141 PLO prisoners. [44] Both sides declared victory. On a tactical level, the battle went in Israel's favor, [45] and the destruction of the Karameh camp was achieved. [46] However, the relatively high casualties were a considerable surprise for the Israel Defense Forces and was stunning to the Israelis. [47] Although the Palestinians were not victorious on their own, King Hussein let the Palestinians take credit. [47] [48] [49]

June 1968: The war "officially" begins, with sparse Egyptian artillery bombardment of the Israeli front line on the east bank of the Suez Canal. More artillery bombardments in the following months cause Israeli casualties. [22]

August 20, 1968: Israeli and Jordanian forces engaged in a battle along the Sea of Galilee involving artillery, mortars, and machine guns. [50]

September 8, 1968: An Egyptian artillery barrage kills 10 Israeli soldiers and injures 18. Israel responds by shelling Suez and Ismaïlia. [32]

October 30, 1968: Israeli helicopter-borne Sayeret Matkal commandos carry out Operation Shock, destroying an Egyptian electric transformator station, two dams along the Nile River and a bridge. [32] The blackout causes Nasser to cease hostilities for a few months while fortifications around hundreds of important targets are built. Simultaneously, Israel reinforces its position on the east bank of the Suez Canal by construction of the Bar Lev Line. [51]

November 3, 1968: Egyptian MiG-17s attack Israeli positions, and are met by Israeli interceptors. One Israeli plane is damaged. [32]

December 1, 1968: Israeli helicopter-borne commandos destroy four bridges near Amman, Jordan. [32]

December 3, 1968: The Israeli Air Force bombs PLO camps in Jordan. The Israeli jets are intercepted by Hawker Hunters of the Royal Jordanian Air Force, and an Israeli fighter jet is damaged during the brief air battle. [32]

March 8, 1969: Egypt strikes the Bar Lev Line with artillery fire and airstrikes, causing heavy casualties. Israel retaliates with raids deep into Egyptian territory, causing severe damage. [22]

March 9, 1969: The Egyptian Chief of Staff, General Abdul Munim Riad, is killed in an Israeli mortar attack while visiting the front lines along the Suez Canal.

May–July 1969: Heavy fighting takes place between Israeli and Egyptian forces. Israel loses 47 dead and 157 wounded, while Egyptian casualties are far heavier.

July 18, 1969: Egyptian commandos raid Israeli military installations in Sinai. [32]

July 19–20, 1969: Operation Bulmus 6 – Israeli Shayetet 13 and Sayeret Matkal commandos raid Green Island, resulting in the total destruction of the Egyptian facility. Six Israeli soldiers and 80 Egyptian soldiers are killed. Some Egyptian casualties are caused by their own artillery.

July 20–28, 1969: Operation Boxer – Nearly the entire Israeli Air Force attacks the northern sector of the Canal, destroying anti-aircraft positions, tanks and artillery, and shooting down eight Egyptian aircraft. An estimated 300 Egyptian soldiers are killed, and Egyptian positions are seriously damaged. Israeli losses amount to two aircraft. Egyptian artillery fire is reduced somewhat. However, shelling with lighter weapons, particularly mortars, continues.

August 1969: The Israeli Air Force flies about 1,000 combat sorties against Egypt, destroying dozens of SAM sites and shooting down 21 aircraft. Three Israeli aircraft are lost. [32]

September 9, 1969: Operation Raviv – Israeli forces raid Egypt's Red Sea coast. The raid is preceded by Operation Escort, with Shayetet 13 naval commandos sinking a pair of Egyptian torpedo boats that could have threatened the Israeli raiding party. Three commandos are killed when an explosive device detonates prematurely. Israeli troops backed up by aircraft captured Egyptian armor, and destroy 12 Egyptian outposts. The Egyptians suffer 100–200 casualties, and a Soviet general serving as a consultant to the Egyptians is also killed, while one Israeli soldier is lightly injured. An Israeli plane is shot down during the raid, and the pilot's fate is still unknown.

September 11, 1969: Sixteen Egyptian aircraft carry out a strike mission. Eight MiGs are shot down by Israeli Mirages and a further three Su-7s are lost to Israeli anti-aircraft artillery and HAWK surface-to-air missiles. [26]

October 17, 1969: The United States and Soviet Union begin diplomatic talks to end the conflict.

December 9, 1969: Egyptian aircraft, with the assistance of newly delivered P-15 radars, defeats the Israelis in an aerial engagement, shooting down two Israeli Mirages. Later in the evening, an Egyptian fighter flown by Lt. Ahmed Atef shot down an Israeli F-4 Phantom II, making him the first Egyptian pilot to shoot down an F-4 in combat. [52] The same day, the Rogers Plan is publicized. It calls for Egyptian "commitment to peace" in exchange for the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Both parties strongly reject the plan. Nasser forestalled any movement toward direct negotiations with Israel. In dozens of speeches and statements, Nasser posited the equation that any direct peace talks with Israel were tantamount to surrender. [53] President Nasser instead opts to plead for more sophisticated weaponry from the Soviet Union to withstand the Israeli bombings. The Soviets initially refuse to deliver the requested weapons. [54]

December 26–27, 1969: Israel launches Operation Rooster 53, carried out by paratroopers transported by Sikorsky CH-53E and Super Frelon helicopters. The operation results in the capture of an Egyptian P-12 radar at Ras Gharib and carrying it to Israel by two CH-53 Sea Stallion Helicopters. The operation enabled Israeli and American learning of the latest Soviet radar technology, and caused a huge morale impact on the Egyptians.

January 7, 1970: Israel launched Operation Priha, a series of air raids against military targets in the Egyptian heartland. A total of 118 sorties were ultimately undertaken between January 7 and April 13. Also on January 7, a Soviet adviser to an Egyptian infantry brigade was killed in an Israeli attack. [55]

January 22, 1970: President Nasser secretly flies to Moscow to discuss the situation. His request for new SAM batteries (including the 2K12 Kub and Strela-2) is approved. Their deployment requires qualified personnel along with squadrons of aircraft to protect them. Thus, he needed Soviet military personnel in large numbers, something the Kremlin did not want to provide. Nasser then threatens to resign, implying that Egypt might turn to the United States for help in the future. The Soviets had invested heavily in President Nasser's regime, and so, the Soviet leader, General-Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, finally obliged. The Soviet presence was to increase from 2,500 to 4,000 in January to 10,600–12,150 (plus 100–150 Soviet pilots) by June 30.

January 22, 1970: Operation Rhodes. Israeli paratroopers and naval commandos are transported by IAF Super Frelon helicopters to Shadwan Island where they kill 70 Egyptian soldiers and take 62 more prisoner at the loss of 3 dead and 7 wounded. The soldiers dismantle an Egyptian radar and other military equipment for transport back to Israel. IAF aircraft sink two Egyptian P-183 torpedo boats during the operation. [56]

January 26, 1970: Israeli aircraft attacked an Egyptian auxiliary ship in the Gulf of Suez, damaging it and causing it to ground on a reef. [57]

January 28, 1970: Israeli bombing killed six Soviet personnel, three in an attack on a building in a suburb of Cairo that housed Soviet advisors and three in a SAM complex at Dashur. [55]

February, 1970: Two Israeli auxiliary vessels were sabotaged by Egyptian frogmen in Eilat harbor. A supply ship sank while a coastal landing craft sustained damage but was beached by its crew before sinking. There were no casualties. In response, Israeli warplanes sank an Egyptian minelayer in the Gulf of Suez, carried out raids against Egyptian military positions in the canal zone, and struck two military targets deeper into Egyptian territory. Egyptian aircraft also raided Israeli positions along the Suez Canal, injuring three Israeli soldiers. Four days of fighting took place between Israeli and Syrian forces as well. [58] [59] Israeli fighter jets accidentally struck an industrial plant at Abu Zaabal, killing 80 workers. [60]

February, 1970: An Egyptian commando platoon attempts to set up an ambush in the vicinity of the Mitla Pass but is discovered. The entire unit is either killed or captured. [26]

February 9, 1970: An air battle between Israeli and Egyptian warplanes takes place, with each side losing one plane. [32]

March 15, 1970: The first fully operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt was completed. It is part of three brigades which the Soviet Union sends to Egypt. [61] Israeli F-4 Phantom II jets repeatedly bomb Egyptian positions in Sinai.

April 8, 1970: The Israeli Air Force carried out bombing raids against targets identified as Egyptian military installations. A group of military bases about 30 kilometers from the Suez Canal was bombed. However, in what becomes known as the Bahr el-Baqar incident, Israeli F4 Phantom II fighter jets attack a single-floor school in the Egyptian town of Bahr el-Baqar, after it was mistaken for a military installation. The school is hit by five bombs and two air-to-ground missiles, killing 46 schoolchildren and injuring over 50. [62] [63] This incident puts a definite end to the campaign, and the Israelis instead then concentrate upon Canal-side installations. The respite gives the Egyptians time to reconstruct its SAM batteries closer to the canal. Soviet flown MiG fighters provide the necessary air cover. Soviet pilots also begin approaching IAF aircraft during April 1970, but Israeli pilots have orders not to engage these aircraft, and break off whenever Soviet-piloted MiGs appear.

April, 1970: the Kuwaiti Armed Forces suffered their first Kuwaiti fatality on the Egyptian front. [64]

May, 1970: An Israeli fishing boat was sunk by the Egyptian Navy, killing two of its crew. The Israeli Air Force launched a heavy series of bombing raids against Egyptian targets throughout the canal zone and shot down five Egyptian warplanes. Israeli aircraft sank an Egyptian destroyer and minelayer. Two Israeli soldiers were killed by Egyptian shelling and a civilian Israeli frogman was also killed by explosives planted by Egyptian frogmen while removing underwater wreckage at the port of Eilat. [65] During the final days of the month, the IAF launched major air raids against Port Said, believing a large amphibious force is assembling in the town. On the 16th an Israeli aircraft was shot down in air combat, probably by a MiG-21. [66]

May 3, 1970: Twenty-one Palestinian guerrillas were killed by Israeli troops in the Jordan Valley. [59]

May 20, 1970: Israeli troops repulsed an Egyptian commando raid in the canal zone. The Egyptian raiding party retreated under cover of Egyptian artillery fire and Israeli forces responded with artillery fire and airstrikes. Seven of the Egyptian commandos were killed and the Israeli account claimed that the Egyptians also suffered casualties from Israeli retaliatory shelling and airstrikes. Israeli losses were two killed and one injured. Israeli and Jordanian forces also exchanged mortar fire in the northern Beisan Valley. [67]

May 30, 1970: 15 Israeli soldiers are killed, 8 are wounded, and 2 are presumed captured on the same day in three separate ambushes. Israeli armored patrols were ambushed twice on the Suez Canal by Egyptian guerillas, resulting in 13 Israeli soldiers dead, 4 wounded, and 2 missing and presumed taken prisoner. In the Jordan Valley, north of Jericho, an army patrol was ambushed by Arab guerillas, resulting in 2 dead and 4 wounded. It was not known whether the clashes resulted in any Arab casualties. [68]

June 1970: An Israeli armored raid on Syrian military positions resulted in "hundreds of Syrian casualties." [1]

June 25, 1970: An Israeli A-4 Skyhawk, in an attack sortie against Egyptian forces on the Canal, was attacked and pursued by a pair of Soviet MiG-21s into Sinai. According to the Soviets, the plane was shot down, while the Israelis said it was damaged and forced to land at a nearby airbase. [61]

June 27, 1970: The EAF continued to launch air raids across the canal. On June 27 around eight Egyptian Su-7s and MiG-21s attacked Israeli rear areas in Sinai. According to Israel, two Egyptian aircraft were shot down. An Israeli Mirage was shot down, and the pilot was captured. [69]

June 1970: The Kuwaiti Armed Forces suffered sixteen fatalities on the Egyptian front. [64]

June 30, 1970: Soviet air defenses shot down two Israeli F-4 Phantoms. Two pilots and a navigator are captured, while a second navigator is rescued by helicopter the following night. [32]

July 18, 1970: An Israeli airstrike on Egypt caused casualties among Soviet military personnel.

July 30, 1970: A large-scale dogfight occurred between Israeli and Soviet aircraft, codenamed Rimon 20, involving 12 to 24 Soviet MiG-21s (besides the initial 12, other MiGs were "scrambled", but it is unclear if they reached the battle in time), and 12 Israeli Dassault Mirage IIIs and four F-4 Phantom II jets. The engagement took place west of the Suez Canal. After luring their opponents into an ambush, the Israelis shot down four of the Soviet-piloted MiGs. A fifth was possibly hit and later crashed en route back to base. Four Soviet pilots were killed, while the IAF suffered no losses except a damaged Mirage. [61] The Soviets responded by luring Israeli fighter jets into a counter-ambush, downing two, [70] and deploying more aircraft to Egypt. Following the Soviets' direct intervention, known as "Operation Kavkaz", [61] Washington feared an escalation and redoubled efforts toward a peaceful resolution to the conflict.

Early August, 1970: Despite their losses, the Soviets and Egyptians managed to press the air defenses closer to the canal, shooting down a number of Israeli aircraft. The SAM batteries allowed the Egyptians to move in artillery which in turn threatened the Bar Lev Line.

August 7, 1970: A cease-fire agreement was reached, forbidding either side from changing "the military status quo within zones extending 50 kilometers to the east and west of the cease-fire line." Minutes after the cease-fire, Egypt began moving SAM batteries into the zone even though the agreement explicitly forbade new military installations. [19] By October there were approximately one hundred SAM sites in the zone.

September 28, 1970: President Nasser died of a heart attack, and was succeeded by Vice President Anwar Sadat.

According to the military historian Ze'ev Schiff, some 921 Israelis, of which 694 were soldiers and the remainder civilians, were killed on all three fronts. [71] Chaim Herzog notes a slightly lower figure of just over 600 killed and some 2,000 wounded [72] while Netanel Lorch states that 1,424 soldiers were killed in action between the period of June 15, 1967 and August 8, 1970. Between 24 [73] and 26 [74] Israeli aircraft were shot down. A Soviet estimate notes aircraft losses of 40. One destroyer, the INS Eilat, was sunk.

As with the previous Arab–Israeli wars of 1956 and 1967, Arab losses far exceeded those of Israel, but precise figures are difficult to ascertain because official figures were never disclosed. The lowest estimate comes from the former Egyptian Army Chief of Staff, Saad el Shazly, who notes Egyptian casualties of 2,882 killed and 6,285 wounded. Historian Benny Morris states that a more realistic figure is somewhere on the scale of 10,000 soldiers and civilians killed. Ze'ev Schiff notes that at the height of the war, the Egyptians were losing some 300 soldiers daily and aerial reconnaissance photos revealed at least 1,801 freshly dug graves near the Canal zone during this period. Among Egypt's war dead was the Egyptian Army Chief of Staff, Abdul Munim Riad. [71]

Between 98 [73] and 114 [74] Egyptian aircraft were shot down, though a Soviet estimate notes air losses of 60.

Several Egyptian naval vessels were sunk. The Palestinian PLO suffered 1,828 killed and 2,500 were captured. [71] Jordan's intervention on behalf of the PLO during the Battle of Karameh cost it 40–84 killed and 108–250 injured. An estimated 58 Soviet military personnel were killed and four to five Soviet-piloted MiG-21 aircraft were shot down in aerial combat. [75] Syrian casualties are unknown but an armored raid by Israeli forces against Syrian positions in June 1970 led to "hundreds of Syrian casualties." [1] Cuban forces, which were deployed on the Syrian front, were estimated to have lost 180 dead and 250 wounded. [17]


SIX-DAY WAR 1967

Nuova collana della Osprey Publishing dedicata ai grandi combattimenti aerei della storia. Ogni volume, ricco di artwork, mappe e diagrammi descrive la battaglia, gli aerei coinvolti, i protagonisti, gli obiettivi, l&rsquoesito, ecc.

On one day in June, the balance of air power in the Middle East was turned upside down by perhaps the most ruthlessly effective air superiority campaign in history - Operation Moked, or Focus.

In 1967, the Israeli Air Force was outnumbered more than two to one by the jets of hostile Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iraq. Operation Focus was Israel's ingenious strike plan to overturn the balance. At 0745hrs on June 6, Israeli jets hit Egypt's airfields simultaneously, first bombing runways and then strafing aircraft. Another 20 follow-up missions were already in the air, initially scheduled to hit every five minutes.

This new history of Operation Focus explains how the concept for Focus was devised and meticulously planned, the astonishing rate of serviceability and turnaround speed it required from ground crews, and how the relentless tempo of strikes shattered one air force after another. It is the story of how Israel's victory in the Six-Day War began with a single, shocking day.


Mirage III vs MiG-21

Collana della Osprey Publishing dedicata ai modellisti, giocatori di wargames e agli appassionati di storia militare di ogni età. Ogni volume mette a confronto 2 aerei, o 2 mezzi corazzati, 2 navi, 2 armi, 2 tipi di armamento, ecc. protagonisti del 20° secolo. Ne segue l'origine e lo sviluppo con ampia trattazione delle innovazioni tecnologiche e tattiche introdotte, fornisce tutti i dati tecnici, le caratteristiche e particolari vari. L'iconografia comprende accurati artwork digitali a colori anche degli interni, disegni al tratto e vari "gun sight views" dei mezzi in azione sui campi di battaglia.

Although the opposing forces of the Six Day War were both flying comparable third-generation Mach 2 jet fighters, the pilots were trained to different standards, and were expected to utilize different tactics. Using the latest research, first-hand accounts, and specially commissioned artwork, Shlomo Aloni tells the dramatic story of the dogfights in the skies over the Middle East.


Mirage III Vs Mig-21

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Born on 22 January 1892 in Paris, he was the youngest of the four children of Adolphe Bloch, a doctor, and his wife Noémie Allatini. [2] [3] His parents were Jewish.

He was educated at Lycée Condorcet in Paris. After studies in electrical engineering, [2] he graduated from the Breguet School and Supaéro. At the latter school, Bloch was classmates with a Russian student named Mikhail Gurevich, who would later be instrumental in the creation of the MiG aircraft series. [2]

Bloch worked at the French Aeronautics Research Laboratory at Chalais-Meudon [2] during World War I and invented a type of aircraft propeller subsequently used by the French army during the conflict. In 1916, with Henry Potez and Louis Coroller, he formed a company, the Société d'Études Aéronautiques, to produce the SEA series of fighters. [4]

In 1928, Bloch founded the aircraft company Société des Avions Marcel Bloch, which produced its first aircraft in 1930. [2] In 1935, Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise (SAB). [ citation needed ] In 1936, the company was nationalized as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest (SNCASO). Bloch agreed to become the delegated administrator of the Minister for Air. [5]

During the occupation of France by Nazi Germany during World War II, France's aviation industry was virtually disbanded, [6] other than the compulsory manufacturing, assembly and servicing of German designs. In October 1940, Bloch refused to collaborate with the German occupiers at Bordeaux-Aéronautique and was imprisoned by the Vichy government.

In 1944, the Nazis deported Bloch to the Buchenwald concentration camp, [2] as punishment for refusing to co-operate with their regime. He was tortured, beaten and held in solitary confinement. In the meantime, his wife was interned near Paris. Bloch was detained at Buchenwald until it was liberated on 11 April 1945. By the time of his return to Paris, he was crippled to such an extent that he could barely walk. He was advised by his doctors to settle his affairs, as they did not expect him to recover his health. [2]

After the war, he changed his name from Bloch to Bloch-Dassault and in 1949 to Dassault. This name was the nom de guerre used by his brother, General Darius Paul Bloch, when he served in the French resistance, [2] and is derived from char d'assaut, French for "tank". [note 1] In 1971, Dassault acquired Breguet, forming Avions Marcel Dassault–Breguet Aviation (AMD–BA).

In 1919, Bloch married Madeleine Minckes, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family of furniture dealers. [7] They had two sons, Claude and Serge. After changing his name to Dassault, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1950. [5] [8] [2]

In July 1952, Dassault acquired the Paris landmark buildings now known as Hôtel Marcel Dassault, dating from 1844, [9] at nos. 7 and 9 rond-point des Champs-Élysées (at the corner of the avenue des Champs-Élysées and avenue Montaigne), from the Sabatier d'Espeyran family. [10] The building at no. 7 has been used since 2002 by the auction house Artcurial, which had further alterations made under the direction of architect Jean-Michel Wilmotte. [9] While no. 7 has been sold, no. 9 is still used by the Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault.

Dassault died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1986 and was buried at the Passy Cemetery in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.

Serge Dassault, Marcel's younger son, became CEO of Avions Marcel Dassault, which was restructured as Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault, reflecting its broader interests. In 1990, the aviation division was renamed Dassault Aviation.

In 1991, the rond-point des Champs-Elysées in Paris was renamed the rond-point des Champs-Elysées-Marcel-Dassault in his honor.

In The Adventures of Tintin book Flight 714 to Sydney, Dassault is parodied as the aircraft construction tycoon Laszlo Carreidas – "the millionaire who never laughs" – who offers Tintin, Captain Haddock and Professor Calculus his personal jet, the Carreidas 160, to travel to Sydney. [12]


Shlomo Aloni and Illustrator Jim Laurier

Published by Osprey Publishing, 2004

Laurier, Jim (illustrator). (Subject: Osprey Aviation) The F-4E Phantom II was used by the Israelis in the air-to-ground role and in air-to-air missions. Despite performing these roles with equal success the Israeli reliance on the Mirage III and Nesher delta fighters meant that the F-4 was used mostly in its air-to-ground role. The kill total of the Israeli F-4 community was, consequently, a modest 116.5 significantly lower than that of other Israeli aircraft types in service between 1969 and 1982. A handful of aces were, nevertheless, created and, using first hand accounts, this unique book tells their stories. (Published: 2004) (Publisher: Osprey Publishing) (ISBN: 9781841767833) (Pagination: A4 format, 96pp, numerous b/w photos, 12pp colour plates) (Condition: new in card cover) UL-XXXXXX.

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Comments:

  1. Dairan

    no, I don't like that!

  2. Jeramiah

    what?

  3. Daran

    Bravo, you were not mistaken :)

  4. Alwalda

    Exactly! I think that is the good idea.



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