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Phidias (?), Sculpture from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, c. 448-432 B.C.E

Phidias (?), Sculpture from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, c. 448-432 B.C.E


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64 Parthenon’s East Pediment

Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker provide a description, historical perspective, and analysis of the Sculpture from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, possibly carved by Phidias.

Phidias (?), Sculpture from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, marble, c. 448–432 BCE, Classical Period (British Museum, London).

The identification of the Parthenon’s pediment figures remains unsettled. It is thought that the east pediment depicted the birth of the goddess Athena (fully grown) from the head of her father, Zeus, though these central figures are now lost.

Scholars have tentitively deduced the identities of the existing figures as follows (left to right):

  • Helios (god of the sun), only the shoulder and arm survive
  • Horse, which was part of a quadriga (four-horse chariot) pulling Helios
  • Dionysus (god of wine), lounging
  • Persephone (daughter of Zeus, abducted by Hades), seated beside her mother Demeter
  • Demeter (goddess of the law, marriage, the seasons, and the harvest), seated between her daugther and the standing figure of Artemis
  • Artemis (goddess of the hunt), shown turning from the central scene
  • a gap, which likely would have been occupied by Zeus and Athena
  • Hestia (goddess of the hearth, later Roman equivilent was Vesta), seated beside Dione
  • Dione seated beside Hestia provides a lap for her daugther Aphrodite. Her name is the feminine varient of Zeus, she is sometimes seen as an equivelent of Gaia, goddess of the Earth
  • Aphrodite (goddess of love and beauty), leans against her mother Dione
  • Horse, thought to belong to either the setting moon (Selene) or night (Nyx)

There is something missing on the Acropolis these days, something even more important and meaningful than the ancient temples’ bomb-blasted architectural elements and the notoriously plundered sculptures we so frequently find ourselves focusing on.

Among the magnificent white-marble buildings that once adorned the Sacred Rock, thanks to the Athenian statesman Pericles, the Parthenon (447-432 BC) was indeed the most splendid and within that famous temple was the most extraordinary work of its sculptural collection.

This masterpiece – the most impressive and talked about in the centuries after the Golden Age of Classical Athens – was the gigantic, chryselephantine cult statue of Athena Parthenos, a massive gold-and-ivory jewel of ancient Greek art, now lost in the mists of time.

An artist's impression of the gold and ivory statue of Athena Parthenos

An artist's impression of the gold and ivory statue of Athena Parthenos

Thematic tour

This central feature of the Parthenon may be long gone, but shadows of it remain in the form of historical accounts, faint archaeological traces and various artistic tributes widely produced in “late Classical, Hellenistic and Roman reliefs, statues, medallions, intaglios, tokens, gems and coins” (J. Hurwit).

And now, drawing on such material, the Acropolis Museum has organized a new thematic tour for its visitors to better know and celebrate this wonder of the ancient world.

Until the end of December, a special program, “The Lost Statue of Athena Parthenos,” led by an archaeologist-host, gives visitors a chance to view an amazing video presentation featuring a 3D computer reconstruction of Athena’s greatest statue, as it was originally seen inside the Parthenon.

Afterwards, participants move to the museum’s third-floor gallery for discussions of the Parthenon’s metopes, with their dynamic images of the Gigantomachy, Centauromachy and Amazonomachy. Particular topics during the talks include the statue’s materials and construction techniques, its patriotic symbolism for ancient Athenians and the public scandals that swirled around it, instigated by Pericles’ relentless political rivals.

The lost statue of Athena Parthenos @ the Acropolis Museum

To: December 28, 2019

The Acropolis Museum invites its visitors on a walk of knowledge about its construction materials and techniques, its myths and allegories, its radiance and its adventures.

English: Every Saturday at 11 a.m.
Greek: Every Saturday at 1 p.m.
Duration: 50 minutes
Price: Only the general admission fee (€5) to the Museum is required.

The Erectheion, which stands on the Acropolis, was once the headquarters of the priestess of Athena

The Erectheion, which stands on the Acropolis, was once the headquarters of the priestess of Athena

Key to a complex temple

Although the Parthenon was a temple, and basically served, like other temples, as a protective shelter for a cult statue, it was not the focus for the regular worship and rituals associated with the deity it housed. Inside its cella (inner sanctum) stood Athena: the city-state’s divine patroness and namesake the warrior goddess who led Athenians in their military victories.

Yet Athena’s primary cult statue, an age-old figure carved from olive wood, was kept in the adjacent temple, the Erechtheion, which replaced a succession of earlier temples of Athena in this central area of the Acropolis. The priestess of Athena was headquartered at the Erechtheion the altar used for sacrifices to the goddess stood near its east end.

So, what was the Parthenon?

A simple answer cannot be given, as it served many purposes.

It was foremost a gift to the gods, particularly Athena, in gratitude for her patronage and granting of Athenian triumphs on the battlefield – especially over the Persians, who had recently invaded Greece, Athens and even the Acropolis in 480/79 BC.

The Parthenon was also a giant message board, whose sculpted metopes on its four facades held allegorical scenes of mythical battles known to all Greeks – the Gigantomachy, Centauromachy, Amazonomachy and Trojan War – legendary tales which celebrated the Greeks’ ability to render civilized order from wild nature and chaos.

At the same time, Pericles appears to have meant for the building to be a tribute particularly to Athenian greatness and the city’s progressive democratic reforms.

The Parthenon’s eastern pediment tells the story of the birth of Athena, framed by the rising and sinking chariots of Helios (Sun) and Selene (Moon) – a special day in the life of the world.

The Parthenon’s eastern pediment tells the story of the birth of Athena, framed by the rising and sinking chariots of Helios (Sun) and Selene (Moon) – a special day in the life of the world.

Most intriguing, the Parthenon is now coming to be viewed by many scholars as a monument not only to the goddess Athena, as we see from her birth myth depicted on the east pediment, but also to Athens’ mythical foundation – evoked first (to the ascending visitor) in the west pedimental sculpture showing the contest for dominance between Athena and Poseidon.

Further allusion to the city’s birth, classicist Joan Connelly has argued since the 1990s, is found in sculpted depictions of the legendary king Erechtheus and his family, especially his daughters, represented in the frieze’s emblematic central scene located directly over the Parthenon’s eastern entrance.

The much-admired, oracle-decreed self-sacrifice of these three virgins (“parthenoi”), known as the Erechtheidai, on behalf of their city-state – prior to a legendary war between Athens and Eleusis (whose king was Eumolpos, son of Poseidon) – consequently allowed Athens to triumph over Eleusis, remain independent and go on to become the great, leading city of Classical Greece.

Inside the temple, the Parthenon’s splendid cult statue was the culminating embodiment of all these functions and sculpturally evoked meanings of the monument – a key to understanding, both then and now, which brought together through its own form and decorative elements all the mythical themes displayed throughout the building.

The statue of Athena Parthenos was created in 447-438 BC by the master sculptor Pheidias – very likely in an on-site workshop now also gone, but similar to the one we still see at ancient Olympia, where he also created that sanctuary’s cult statue of Zeus (435 BC).

Unlike Olympia’s seated Zeus, Athena Parthenos was standing, nearly 12 m tall, her exposed flesh rendered from pale ivory, her armor and “peplos” robe from gleaming gold, weighing a total of at least 40 talents, about one metric ton.

The sculpture was hollow, formed of a wooden armature covered with removable plates – which proved fortuitous, Plutarch reports (Pericles 31.2-3), when Pheidias was later accused of embezzlement, but absolved of guilt when he was able to disassemble the individual gold plates and have them weighed.

Athena’s extended right hand supported a golden Nike statue, about 2 m tall, while her left rested on top of her shield beside her.

Mythological images appeared everywhere on Athena’s statue: her helmet bore a sphinx, winged horses (Pegasoi), griffins and deer her gold breastplate/aegis featured a central ivory portrait of the Gorgon Medusa her shield (almost 5 m in diameter) displayed the Amazonomachy on its outer surface, the Gigantomachy inside and the edges of her sandals were decorated with the Centauromachy.

Coiled beside Athena was a golden snake, the sacred protector of the Acropolis. Additionally, as the Roman-era traveler Pausanias (1.24.7) tells us, this serpent was the incarnation of indigenous, earth-born Erechtheus/Erichthonios, the “son” of Athena and Hephaistos and the grandfather of mythical King Erechtheus, the primordial ruler (after Kekrops) of Athens.

The cult statue’s white, Pentelic-marble base (about 90 cm tall) is particularly significant for Athenian mythology and our understanding of the Parthenon’s sculptural iconography.

Across its façade, visible to all visitors, was a series of gilded bronze figures. At the center stood a young woman, about to be crowned by an older female on her left. Pausanias identifies the central figure as Pandora, the first woman, as described by Hesiod. However, due to a confusion that had arisen over the centuries since the Parthenon’s creation, or to the traveler’s own misunderstanding of his local guide, Pausanias, it appears, was mistaken.

A statue of Athena outside the Academy of Athens.

A statue of Athena outside the Academy of Athens.

Which Pandora?

The maiden shown on the base supporting Athena Parthenos was very likely not Hesiod’s Pandora, as she had no relevance to Athenian mythology or tradition. Instead, she was Chthonia, Erechtheus’ youngest daughter – a figure of great import for Athens – who Connelly has convincingly argued from iconographic evidence may also have been called “Anesidora” (she who sends up gifts) and/or the related “Pandora” (giver of all).

Euripides, in his tragic play Erechtheus (about 422 BC), simply calls this daughter “Parthenos,” the virgin. The female figure to her left is Athena, flanked by Hephaistos – her two ancestral “grandparents.” The goddess (perhaps representing the city of Athens itself, as she did so often in ancient art) honors the girl with a crown, an act of Athenian tribute Euripides has her mother Praxithea predict in a dramatic speech.

The great local significance of Erechtheus and his daughters is confirmed in Roman times by Cicero (Nat. D. 3.50), who writes these mythical figures “have been deified at Athens.” Pausanias (1.27.4), too, during his Acropolis tour, observes, “by the temple of Athena,” two bronze statues of Erechtheus and Eumolpos that are “facing each other for a fight.”

Clearly, the city’s foundation, involving a war between Athens and Eleusis, was a major theme commemorated on the Acropolis.

Temple of the virgins

The cult Statue of Athena, then, served to tie together all the Parthenon’s mythical themes and sculpted imagery, including allusions to Erechtheus and the Erechtheidai in the temple’s Ionic frieze.

Although the frieze has long been interpreted as portraying a contemporary 5th-century-BC celebration of the Panathenaia procession, the chronological and other inconsistencies inherent to this long-embraced (since 1787) reading are so numerous as to finally invite its retirement.

It seems that the frieze – as perhaps we should already have begun to conclude following Chrysoula Kardaras’ suggestion in the early 1960s – instead depicts the first, mythical Panathenaia, decreed by Athena to honor Erechtheus and his daughters.

One telling clue is found in the frieze’s chariots, a pre-Classical feature of war no longer employed in Periclean times, nor known to have been paraded in Classical Panathenaic processions.

The frieze’s eastern central scene further highlights Erechtheus, as it shows him with Praxithea and their daughters. The Erechtheidai are about to dress themselves in burial shrouds for their self-sacrifice on behalf of Athens, with Pandora going first – much as Iphigeneia submitted to being sacrificed by her father Agamemnon to allow the Greek fleet to reach Troy.

Framing the central scene, the Olympian gods turn their backs to the daughters’ imminent death, as for them to observe such a mortal sacrifice would be improper and pollute their divinity. The 30+ women that also conspicuously dominate the frieze’s main east side, Connelly recently concluded (2014), are the “sacred maiden choruses that Athena instructs Praxithea to establish in memory of her deceased daughters” — as Euripides later dramatized the myth, apparently inspired by the images carved on the Parthenon.

At the temple’s opposite end, its western chamber (opisthodomos) became a shrine to the deceased “parthenoi” – as this room’s Ancient Greek name “parthenon” (“of the parthenoi”) implies.

If indeed the scene carved on the base of Athena’s cult statue showcased the local heroine Pandora, then the epithet “Athena Parthenos,” according to Connelly, may actually have represented a conjoined epithet or cult – Athena-Parthenos, like that of Poseidon-Erechtheus in the Erechtheion – which reflected the Athenians’ great reverence not only for the virgin goddess Athena, but also for the youngest, virgin daughter of Erechtheus.


Horse of Selene - Item #69

Each piece is custom finished. Depending on a sculpture’s texture and level of detail, the look of a patina can vary. A slight variation in color from order to order is to be expected.

Unless otherwise noted, our reproductions are hand cast in plaster and reinforced with burlap, fiber strands, and/or metal rods for extra strength.

FLAT WHITE: A unified, matte white finish. This is the optimum patina for cast drawing as it allows focus on form.

WHITE PATINA: A white finish with a light ivory tone added to the top surfaces.

LIGHT ANTIQUE PLASTER: A soft mixture of whites, grays, and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.

ANTIQUE PLASTER: A dramatic mixture of grays and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.

BRONZE: A rich brown finish with golden highlights to replicate the look of bronze.

STONE: A mixture of lighter tones to resemble natural stone.

DARK STONE: A mixture of darker tones to resemble natural stone.

SANDSTONE: A soft base color with warm highlights to resemble the look of natural sandstone.

TERRA COTTA: A variation of warm tones to resemble terra cotta.

ASSYRIAN STONE (Applies only to item numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 and 738): A two-tone patina augmenting the shallow relief sculpture and its stone texture.

TANAGRA PATINA (Applies only to item numbers 317, 318, 319, 320, 800 and 813): A finish that replicates the colors of the Tanagra figurines as shown in the product images.

24 Inches High x 33 Inches Wide x 11 Inches Deep

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena, is an astounding example of Classical Greek architecture and art. It was built by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates while the supervisor, and also the artistic director, for the project was the sculptor Phidias. Situated on the Acropolis in Athens, the Parthenon, at its prime, was a temple of white marble with countless colorful sculptures. Today, it is partially in ruins. The pediments, which are architectural elements similar to gables, were the last areas of the Parthenon to receive decoration.

This horse sculpture is one of the horses of Selene, the moon goddess. Selene and the god of the sun, Helios, are shown driving their chariots i n opposite corners of the east pediment, the pediment that illustrated the birth of Athena from Zeus's head. Reconstructions of the pediment reveal that only the top portions of the gods and horses were visible as these scenes were designed to fit into the tight corners of the pediment. As Helios brings about the day, his horses are full of energy, aiming upward. Selene's horses, like this one, are exhausted, panting as they complete their night ride. One can see the tension in the features and muscles of this horse's face. The holes in the sculpture were once used for the attachment of a metal bridle and of metal ornament to the mane. This horse is in the collection of the British Museum, as are a pair of Helios's horses and what remains of Helios. Selene's torso, two of her horses, and the other pair of Helios's horses can be found in the Acropolis Museum.

Museum: British Museum, London

Origin: The Parthenon - East Pediment, Athens

Time Period: Ancient Greek , 437-432 B.C.E.

Pieces are plaster unless otherwise noted. They are made to order and hand cast. We offer our pieces in a variety of patinas/finishes. Click next tab for more details.

Small and large reliefs and masks come with at least one embedded hook for hanging unless otherwise noted.

Questions? View the FAQ page for more information and for answers to frequently asked questions. Email us at [email protected] or call us at 781-933-2455.

Each piece is custom finished. Depending on a sculpture’s texture and level of detail, the look of a patina can vary. A slight variation in color from order to order is to be expected.

Unless otherwise noted, our reproductions are hand cast in plaster and reinforced with burlap, fiber strands, and/or metal rods for extra strength.

FLAT WHITE: A unified, matte white finish. This is the optimum patina for cast drawing as it allows focus on form.

WHITE PATINA: A white finish with a light ivory tone added to the top surfaces.

LIGHT ANTIQUE PLASTER: A soft mixture of whites, grays, and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.

ANTIQUE PLASTER: A dramatic mixture of grays and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.

BRONZE: A rich brown finish with golden highlights to replicate the look of bronze.

STONE: A mixture of lighter tones to resemble natural stone.

DARK STONE: A mixture of darker tones to resemble natural stone.

SANDSTONE: A soft base color with warm highlights to resemble the look of natural sandstone.

TERRA COTTA: A variation of warm tones to resemble terra cotta.

ASSYRIAN STONE (Applies only to item numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 and 738): A two-tone patina augmenting the shallow relief sculpture and its stone texture.

TANAGRA PATINA (Applies only to item numbers 317, 318, 319, 320, 800 and 813): A finish that replicates the colors of the Tanagra figurines as shown in the product images.

Most pieces ship within 1-3 weeks as they are made to order and hand cast.

Customers in the contiguous United States receive free shipping automatically at checkout. Customers located elsewhere can find shipping options in the checkout process.

Pieces must be opened and inspected within 48 hours of delivery to report any damage.

Returns are not accepted all sales are final as pieces are made to order and hand cast.

View the FAQ page for more information and for answers to frequently asked questions.

Pieces are plaster unless otherwise noted. They are made to order and hand cast. We offer our pieces in a variety of patinas/finishes. Click next tab for more details.

Small and large reliefs and masks come with at least one embedded hook for hanging unless otherwise noted.

Questions? View the FAQ page for more information and for answers to frequently asked questions. Email us at [email protected] or call us at 781-933-2455.

Each piece is custom finished. Depending on a sculpture’s texture and level of detail, the look of a patina can vary. A slight variation in color from order to order is to be expected.

Unless otherwise noted, our reproductions are hand cast in plaster and reinforced with burlap, fiber strands, and/or metal rods for extra strength.

FLAT WHITE: A unified, matte white finish. This is the optimum patina for cast drawing as it allows focus on form.

WHITE PATINA: A white finish with a light ivory tone added to the top surfaces.

LIGHT ANTIQUE PLASTER: A soft mixture of whites, grays, and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.

ANTIQUE PLASTER: A dramatic mixture of grays and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.

BRONZE: A rich brown finish with golden highlights to replicate the look of bronze.

STONE: A mixture of lighter tones to resemble natural stone.

DARK STONE: A mixture of darker tones to resemble natural stone.

SANDSTONE: A soft base color with warm highlights to resemble the look of natural sandstone.

TERRA COTTA: A variation of warm tones to resemble terra cotta.

ASSYRIAN STONE (Applies only to item numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 and 738): A two-tone patina augmenting the shallow relief sculpture and its stone texture.

TANAGRA PATINA (Applies only to item numbers 317, 318, 319, 320, 800 and 813): A finish that replicates the colors of the Tanagra figurines as shown in the product images.

Most pieces ship within 1-3 weeks as they are made to order and hand cast.

Customers in the contiguous United States receive free shipping automatically at checkout. Customers located elsewhere can find shipping options in the checkout process.

Pieces must be opened and inspected within 48 hours of delivery to report any damage.

Returns are not accepted all sales are final as pieces are made to order and hand cast.

View the FAQ page for more information and for answers to frequently asked questions.


Phidias Athena

Phidias Hotel offers you comfortable accommodation, in the classical center of Athens and the ancient Hill of Acropolis. Situated on the very same pedestrian street, that leads, in just a few minutes, to the Acropolis, the Parthenon, the new Museum of Acropolis, Plaka and all the significant parts of Athens that a traveler must visit The magnificent temple on the Acropolis of Athens, known as the Parthenon, was built between 447 and 432 BCE in the Golden Age of Pericles, and it was dedicated to the city's patron deity Athena.The temple was constructed to house the new gold and ivory cult statue of the goddess by the master sculptor Phidias (also Pheidias) and to proclaim to the world the success of Athens as leader of the. Phidias or Pheidias (/ ˈ f ɪ d i ə s / Ancient Greek: Φειδίας, Pheidias c. 480 - 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon, and the Athena Promachos, a. Phidias's last years remain a mystery. Pericles' enemies accused Phidias of stealing gold from the statue of the Athena Parthenos in 432, but he was able to disprove the charge. They then accused him of impiety (for including portraits of Pericles and himself on the shield of Athena on the Athena Parthenos), and he was thrown into prison

Athena Parthenos by Phidias - Ancient History Encyclopedi

  • Athena Parthenos (Ancient Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος) is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens this statue was designed as its focal point. Parthenos 'maiden, virgin' was an epithet of Athena. There have been many replicas and works inspired by the statue, in.
  • Phidias Grieks beeldhouwer, geboren rond 490 v.Chr. in Athene - overleden na 433 vóór Christus.Phidias is de meest bekende vertegenwoordiger van de klassieke kunst. De Klassieke periode kenmerkt zich door het ideaal van jeugd en schoonheid, gelijk aan en acceptabel voor de goden.Deze Goden worden gebeeldhouwd in mensengestalte waarin de menselijke anatomie accuraat is en de beweging realistisch
  • Phidias (Φειδίας), zoon van Charmides uit Athene, geldt als de beroemdste beeldhouwer van de oudheid. Hij was werkzaam van ca. 460 tot 430 vC en beheerste alle technieken (marmer, brons en chryselefantiene plastiek)
  • Other articles where Athena Parthenos is discussed: Phidias: The colossal statue of the Athena Parthenos, which Phidias made for the Parthenon, was completed and dedicated in 438. The original work was made of gold and ivory and stood some 38 feet (12 metres) high. The goddess stood erect, wearing a tunic, aegis, and helmet and holding a Nik
  • In de cella stond het door Phidias gemaakte ca. 12 m hoge, chryselefantiene godenbeeld van Athena Parthenos. We weten hoe het eruit heeft gezien door beschrijvingen van onder anderen Pausanias en door de kleinere kopieën die ervan werden gemaakt, onder andere de 'Athena van Barbakeion', die in het Nationale Museum is te zien
  • Phidias speelt hierbij de rol als souffleur van de opdrachtgever. Wij zorgen samen met de organisatie voor een toekomstbestendige vastgoedvisie en adviseren bij strategie, realisatie en implementatie. Financieel advies. Een leuk plan is nog lang geen haalbaar plan. Samen bepalen we de financiële parameters voor het project
  • uten afstand. De wifi is gratis en dit hotel heeft ook een restaurant en een bar/lounge

Phidias completed the Lemnian Athena between 451-448 BCE. The massive chryselephantine cult statue, Athena Parthenos, was made out of gold and ivory and measured 12 meters in height. The goddess was depicted as standing, wearing a tunic, aegis, and a helmet and holding a Nike in her right hand and a spear in her left Eén van onze topaanbevelingen in Athene. Het Phidias Hotel heeft een centrale ligging aan de verkeersvrije straat Apostolou Pavlou, op slechts 250 meter van de Akropolis en op 100 meter van het metrostation Thissio. Het hotel heeft een bar en beschikt over kamers met airconditioning en gratis WiFi

Phidias Biography, Works, & Facts Britannic

Phidias Hotel, Athene: Bekijk 358 beoordelingen, 199 foto's en aanbiedingen voor Phidias Hotel, gewaardeerd als nr.211 van 351 hotels in Athene en geclassificeerd als 3 van 5 bij Tripadvisor Ligging Phidias Hotel. Athene wordt meestal geboekt als stedentrip of als tussenstop tijdens een vakantie elders in Griekenland. Het verblijf is dus vaak niet lang. En er moet zoveel mogelijk bezocht worden in korte tijd. Hierbij helpt het al een hoop wanneer je een hotel hebt op een centrale toplocatie

Athena Parthenos - Wikipedi

Phidias Hotel Athene - 3-sterren hotel. Het 3-sterren Phidias Hotel ligt in de nabijheid van Hellenic Children's Museum op slechts 1.1 km afstand. De woning bestaat uit functionele gebouwen Phidias rooms have a private balcony with city or garden views. They are equipped with a satellite TV, iron and hairdryer. Each room has a private bathroom with shower. Phidias has a lounge area, where guests can enjoy coffees and drinks from the bar. Continental breakfast is served in the morning and 24-hour room service is available Two of Phidias' later works became the most prominently known among the ancient Greeks. Around 432 BC, Phidias created a massive chryselephantine figure of Zeus in the temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece, and one of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon in Athens Phidias of Pheidias ( / f ɪ d i ə s / Grieks: Φειδίας, Pheidias .C 480-430 vC) was een Griekse beeldhouwer, schilder en architect. Zijn standbeeld van Zeus in Olympia was een van de zeven wonderen van de Oude Wereld.Phidias ontwierp ook de beelden van de godin Athena op de Atheense Akropolis, namelijk de Athena Parthenos in het Parthenon en de Athena Promachos, een kolossale bronzen.

Phidias - Kunstbu

Phidias - Beroemdste Griekse beeldhouwer (5e eeuw v.C.) uit de oudheid, een specialist in de goud- en ivoorbewerking. Hij werd geboren te Athene in het begin van de 5e eeuw v.C. Als beeldhouwer was hij reeds actief in het jaar 475 v.C. Hij leerde het beroep bij Agelades en Hegias. Later stond hij aan het hoofd van een kunstatelier, waar zijn leerlingen, o.a. Alkamenes en Agorakritos, onder.

Sélectionner une page. phidias athéna parthénos. par | Jan 25, 2021 | Non classifié(e) | Jan 25, 2021 | Non classifié(e Phidias Hotel Athens - 3 star hotel. The ancient-style Phidias Hotel in Neos Kosmos district is rated 3 stars and features a nightclub, a sun deck and a library. It contains 15 contemporary rooms Phidias was a Greek sculptor of the 5th century BC that is basically known for having built one of the wonders of the World, the statue of Zeus.His biography leaves a lot to the shadows because we do not have enough archaeological materials to reconstitute it fully

Phidias(?), Parthenon sculptures, frieze: 438-432 B.C.E., pediment: c. 438-432 B.C.E. and metopes: c. 447-32 B.C.E. Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth. Phidias Hotel CONTACT US - 39 Apostolou Pavlou, Thissio, Zip: 11851 Athens,Tel: +30 210-3459511 -1 Phidias Hotel - Featuring a designated smoking place, a cash machine and an elevator, Phidias Hotel is located close to Hadrian's Library. Major Athens sights, such as Kolokynthou and Plato's Academy Archeological Park are located nearby Athena is a robot that makes lots of things. Athena is derived from the MOST Delta RepRap 3D printer, which was derived from the Rostock RepRap 3-D Printer.. SCAD files now available In order to use the OpenSCAD files, copy them into a folder along with all of the scad files in the scad_libraries repository. Render parts or plates using athena_renderer.scad Phidias Hotel - Gratis reserveren op ViaMichelin. Vind alle informatie over deze accommodatie met ViaMichelin HOTEL en Reserveer voor de Beste Prijs. Gratis annulere

(Phidias also created a second bronze statue of Athena for the Acropolis, known as the Lemnian Athena.) Downfall. Although most of Phidias's major commissions were carried out in Athens and Olympia, he also executed statuary at Delphi, Plataea, Thebes, and Pallene in Achaea Phidias was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect. His statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenon inside the Parthenon, all of them under an Aurea Proportio - [Beth] Athena was born at sunrise so this makes sense. - [Steven] The baseline of the pediment functions as a horizon line. It's a brilliant interpretation of the space and it allows us to imagine the figures rising up. - [Beth] And then we have the gods and goddesses on Mount Olympus present for the birth of Athena . Voordat de tempel voor Athena gebouwd werd, bevond zich op de tafelberg het Hecatompedon. Ook deze tempel was gebouwd ter ere van de godin Athena maar werd in 480 voor Christus door de Perzen vernietigd. De bouw van het Parthenon startte rond 490 voor Christus en duurdee ongeveer twee jaar Phidias, Athena Pathenos, 447-32 B.C.E. (this is a 3rd c. C.E. copy known as Varvakeion found in Athens), National Archaeological Museum in Athens) Learn More on Smarthistor

Phidias - Stilu

  • Because of their imposing height (they were about 12 m tall) and their large dimensions, they brought awe to the worshipers. Unfortunately, none of these have survived. It is believed that the statue of Athena Parthenos was transferred to Constantinople. Archeologists recently discovered the workshop of Phidias where he made the statue of Zeus
  • Three Athena Statues. Three other important single statues loom large in any discussion of Phidias's style and career. The first of these, the Athena Areia dedicated in the sanctuary of Athena at Plataea, is said to have been over life-size and of a composite technique in which the drapery was gold-covered while the flesh parts (head, arms) were carved in marble
  • All things Athena II. Contribute to phidiasllc/athenaII development by creating an account on GitHub
  • Phidias Hotel, Athene: Bekijk 358 beoordelingen, 199 foto's en aanbiedingen voor Phidias Hotel, gewaardeerd als nr.212 van 351 hotels in Athene en geclassificeerd als 3 van 5 bij Tripadvisor
  • Phidias (circa 480 BC—430 BC), was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect. His Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.He also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Acropolis.These were the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon and the Athena Promachos, a bronze statue of Athena near the entrance to the Acropolis
  • One day, Athena, the goddess of Wisdom, Prudence and Mathematics was especially bored. She decided to visit the Earth and see Phidias and Tekton for herself and perhaps give them a needed lesson in humility (and amuse herself in the process). So disguised as an old woman, Athena paid a visit to Phidias's workshop

Athena Parthenos sculpture by Phidias Britannic

  1. g gelden mogelijk Covid-19-reisbeperkingen, waaronder specifieke beperkingen voor accommodaties. Controleer alle nationale, lokale en gezondheidsadviezen voor deze bestem
  2. Now $32 (Was $̶6̶2̶) on Tripadvisor: Phidias Hotel, Athens. See 358 traveler reviews, 199 candid photos, and great deals for Phidias Hotel, ranked #211 of 351 hotels in Athens and rated 3 of 5 at Tripadvisor
  3. Phidias' colossal statue of Athena was housed in the Parthenon, known as the Athena Parthenos and recognised as the symbol of Athens, dating from 447 - 439 BC. As the original is lost, we form a general idea of the statue from Roman copies, as well as its representation on coins and gems
  4. Phidias or Pheidias (/ ˈ f ɪ d i ə s / Greek: Φειδίας, Pheidias c. 480 - 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect. His statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon, and the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze.
  5. Phidias - (Gr. Pheidias), beroemd beeldhouwer, geboren omstreeks 500 v . C . in Athene , leerling van Hegias en Ageladas van Argos zijn eerste werk was een ter verheerlijking van den slag van Marathon te Delphi geplaatst wijgeschenk, een bronzen groep met Miltiades in het midden tot deze eerste periode behoort ook de op de acropolis te Athene geplaatste kolossale bronzen Athena Promachos.
  6. Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon, and the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze which stood between it and the Propylaea, a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens. Phidias was the son of Charmides of Athens
  7. Works of the master's younger years include a colossal bronze Athena (called the Promachos), the Athena Lemnia for the Acropolis, and a chryselephantine Athena for Pellene. Phidias has traditionally been credited with having been in charge of the Parthenon sculptures and other great works on the Acropolis, done for Pericles but it is probable that they were made by pupils and assistants

Phidias Hotel | Thissio, Athens, Athene. 4.112 vind-ik-leuks · 5 personen praten hierover · 1.884 waren hier. Phidias Hotel in Thissio. A place where the.. Phidias Hotel: Heerlijk ontbijt - Bekijk 358 reizigersbeoordelingen, 199 onthullende foto's en goede aanbiedingen voor Phidias Hotel, op Tripadvisor. Toerisme in Athene Hotels in Athen

Hij werd geboren te Athene in het begin van de 5de eeuw, circa 490 voor Christus. Sommigen betwijfelen dit en dateren hem een decennium vroeger of later. Toen Pericles in 449 voor Christus aan de macht kwam, kreeg zijn goede vriend Phidias de leiding over zijn artistieke ondernemingen Phidias Hotel, Athene: Bekijk 358 beoordelingen, 199 foto's en aanbiedingen voor Phidias Hotel, gewaardeerd als nr.211 van 350 hotels in Athene en geclassificeerd als 3 van 5 bij Tripadvisor Phidias was a man recognized for his talents, it is a shame that this generation or generations to come will never get to see his work first hand. Phidias' work on Athena was marveled upon for centuries. Phidias' colossal statue of Athena was housed in the Parthenon and was displayed the symbol of Athens Phidias en Aspasia · Bekijk meer » Athena Promachos. Het standbeeld van Athena Promachos (Ἀθηνᾶ Πρόμαχος, 'Athena de voorvechtster') was in de Oudheid een kolossaal bronzen beeld gemaakt door de beeldhouwer Pheidias op de Akropolis van Athene. Nieuw. Phidias en Athena Promachos · Bekijk meer » Beeld van Zeus te Olympi Phidias >The Greek sculptor Phidias (active ca. 475-425 B.C.), the dominant artistic >figure of the 5th century, was best known for two chryselephantine cult >statues, the Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon, Athens, and the Zeus in >the Temple of Zeus, Olympia

Phidias. By: Brittany Dutkevitch. A well-known landmark that Phidias was involved in was the Parthenon. His job was to observe the construction that took place from 447 B.C. to 432 B.C, as well as creating some of the sculptures inside. This was a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena. It cost 439 silver talents to build Phidias was greatly inspired by Homer and how he conveyed portraits of Gods.<br />Though he would not exaggerate in his statues as Homer did in his poems.<br />It is known that Phidias would start out with a wooden framework and then start building his statue.<br />He had architects, bronze-founders, goldsmiths, and plenty of other people working under him.<br />Though all the credit goes to. On the Acropolis, or Citadel of Athens, rose the magnificent Temple of Athena, called the Parthenon, built under the direction of Phidias, the most celebrated sculptor of that time, who adorned it with many of his works, and especially with the huge statue of Athena in ivory, forty-seven feet in height.The Acropolis was also enriched with another figure of Athena in bronze--also the work of. They were created by Phidias and people who worked for him. 247 feet of elaborate wall carvings were recovered. They were mostly of fights between centaurs and people. As far as contents of the temple while it was still intact, it once contained a statue of Athena, which was named Athena Parthenos or Athena the Virgin Phidias or Pheidias (/ˈfɪdiəs/ Ancient Greek: Φειδίας , Pheidias c. 480 - 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namel

Parthenon - Wikipedi

  1. Die Athena Parthenos Des Phidias Und Ihre Nachbildungen: Ein Beitrag Zur Kunstgeschichte: Schreiber, Theodor: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven
  2. Phidias Piraeus Hotel 189, Kountouriotou, 185 35 Piraeus Routeplanner . 9.6 3618 review
  3. /fid ee euhs/, n. c500 432? B.C., Greek sculptor. * * * or Pheidias flourished с 490-430 BC, Athens, Greece Greek sculptor. Placed in charge of the great building program initiated by Pericles in Athens, he supervised and probably designed th
  4. Happening this morning in Thissio! Spartathlon runners started their foot race from Acropolis, heading to Sparta. A distance of 250 km! Follow the link..

Shop for phidias art from the world's greatest living artists. All phidias artwork ships within 48 hours and includes a 30-day money-back guarantee. Choose your favorite phidias designs and purchase them as wall art, home decor, phone cases, tote bags, and more .Chr. in Athene - overleden na 433 vóór Christus. Phidias is de meest bekende vertegenwoordiger van de klassieke kunst

Phidias: | | ||| | |Phidias Showing the |Frieze| of the |Parthenon| World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available. Phidias, Parthenon sculptures (pediments, metopes and frieze) Plaque of the Ergastines fragment from the frieze on the east side of the Parthenon Victory (Nike) Adjusting Her Sandal, Temple of Athena Nike (Acropolis

Head of Athena. Found in Athens, near the Pnyx, known as Pnyx Athena, this over life-size head was inserted in a colossal statue of the Roman period (2nd centruy AD.). It copies an Athena statue sculpted by Phidias or one of his pupils during the 5th century BC., probably after 430 BC. Cabeza de Atenea Athena - Phidias. Saved by Nevenka. 19. People also love these ideas.

Ontdek de perfecte stockfoto's over Phidias en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium Phidias van de hoogste kwaliteit Athena Parthenos by Phidias. Article . by Mark Cartwright published on 25 January 2015 Send to Google Classroom: Listen to this article. X. The magnificent temple on the Acropolis of Athens, known as the Parthenon, was built between 447 and 432 BCE in the Golden Age of Pericles, and it was dedicated to the city's patron deity Athena

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The replica of a sculpture of Athena by Phidias Although everybody agrees that Phidias carved the original, the name of the piece is still controversial. The statuary type reproduced in the Ingres Minerva seems to be a variant of replicas of the Athena Parthenos, a masterpiece in gold and ivory made by Phidias circa 440 BC and placed in the Parthenon Boek hier een kamer in het Phidias Hotel in Athene, Attica, Griekenland voor de laagste prijs. Hotels vergelijken was nog nooit zo eenvoudig Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon, and the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze statue of Athena which stood between it and the Propylaea, a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens

Phidias Hotel in Athene - Hotels

Phidias' last years remain a mystery. In 432 bc Pericles' enemies accused Phidias of stealing gold from the statue of Athena, but Phidias had applied the gold in such a way that he was able to peel it off and prove that none was missing. They then accused him of impiety for including portraits of himself and Pericles on the shield of Athena Phidias did not always make images of Zeus, nor did he always cast Athena armed into bronze, but turned his art to the other gods and adorned the Maiden's cheeks with a rosy blush, so that in place of her helmet this should cover the goddess's beauty Jul 13, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Nevenka. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinteres Phidias' Questline The Message, the Stick, and the Artist: Make your way to Phidias' Workshop in the Sanctuary of Olympia in the province of Elis. Phidias is extremely concerned about whether or not you were followed. He believes that the Cult of Kosmos is still hunting for him. Someone left him a scytale, or coded message stick De Tempel van Zeus, het Olympieion, in Athene. Hoe er te komen, tips en de bezienswaardigheden voor tijdens je stedentrip naar de hoofdstad van Griekenland

About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. Pheidiasz (i. e. 500 - i. e. 430 körül) szobrász és építész, az ókori görög klasszikus szobrászat legnagyobb alakja. Olümpiai Zeusz-szobra egyike volt az ókori világ hét csodájának. Műveit elsősorban római kori másolatok formájában, illetve korabeli leírások alapján ismerjük. Idősebb Plinius szerint a szobrászat története az ő fellépésével kezdődött Phidias Hotel Athens is a 3-star venue only 0.4 km from Museum of the Ancient Agora. It has en suite rooms and 24-hour room service, shuttle service and newspaper service Feb 18, 2014 - Phidias (/ˈfɪdiəs/ Greek: Φειδίας, Pheidias c. 480 - 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, who lived in the 5th century BC, and is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece: Phidias' Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias designed the statues of the goddess Athena on. Adam Eastland Art & Architecture/Alamy. Little is known about Phidias's life. When Pericles rose to power in 449, he initiated a great building program in Athens and placed Phidias in charge of all artistic undertakings. Among works for which Phidias is famous are three monuments to Athena on the Athenian Acropolis (the Athena Promachos, the Lemnian Athena, and the colossal Athena Parthenos.

Phidias (Pheidias) - Brown Universit

Phidias, LLC introduces Athena, the personal manufacturing robot that can 3-D print and much more. Mill, 3-D print paste, cut vinyl and fabric, even Phidias. Sculpted Zeus at Olympus. Birthplace: Athens, Greece Location of death: Athens, Greece Cause of death: unspecified. Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual ori. Phidias, son of Charmides, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors, was born at Athens about 500 BC. We have varying accounts of his training. Hegias of Athens. Find the perfect phidias athena parthenos stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, buy now Athena and Artemis, early 20th century oil painting by Theophilos Hatzimhail. Another possible meaning may be triple-born or third-born, which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis and Apollo, though other legends identify her as Zeus' first child Phidias was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect. His statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Phidias also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenon inside the Parthenon, all of them under an Aurea Proportion

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Phidias (naar). Athena Medici KU Leuven. Glasdia's kunstgeschiedenis. Université de Louvain, tussen 1839 en 1939. Fotograaf onbekend. Toegevoegde informatie op dia. Stroming/Stijl: Romeinse kunst. Creatie/Bouw: 1ste-2de eeuw BC. Techniek/Materiaal: Marmer Find the perfect Phidias stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Phidias of the highest quality


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Female Figure, from the Cyclades, C. 2500 BCE. White Marble, Ht. 15 3/4”, Museum of Cycladic Arts, Athens, Nicholas P. Goulandris Foundation. Aegean Art.

Significant because they were used for funerary purposes. They were found on their backs in graves meaning they may represent the deceased.

Plan of the Palace Complex, Knossos , Crete, during the Second Palace period. Site occupied 2000-1375 B.C.E., complex begun in Old Palace period (c.1900-1700 B.C.E.) complex rebuilt after earthquakes and fires during Second Palace period (1700-1450 B.C.E.) final destruction c. 1375 B.C.E. Aegean Art.

The maze like appearance could possibly mean it was based off of the story of the minotaur. It thought about drainage and they had plumbing.

Bull Leaping Fresco , wall painting with areas of modern reconstruction, from the palace complex, Knossos, Crete. Late Minoan Period, c. 1550-1450 B.C.E. Aegean Art.

Significant because of the linear and graceful style, and how you can't differentiate if the bull is male or female.

Woman or Goddess with Snakes , as restored, from the palace complex, Knossos, Crete. Second Palace Period, c. 1700-1550 B.C.E. Aegean Art.

Significant because of the typical outfit, the exposed breasts. The holding of snakes could mean she was a power figure she had control over the animals.

Bull’s-head rhyton , from the palace complex, Knossos, Crete. Second Palace Period, c. 1550- 1450 B.C.E., Steatite with shell, rock crystal, and red jasper, the gilt wood horns restored. Aegean Art.

Significant because of it's ritualistic uses. You can pour water or wine through it and it will come out of the mouth.

Lion Gate, Mycenae , c. 1250 BCE, Limestone relief, height of sculpture approx. 9’6”. Aegean Art.

Significant for the post and lintel style of building, and the fact that the burial shafts inside are older than the gate itself and contained golden burial masks.

Funerary Vase (Krater) , from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens, c. 750-700 B.C.E., terracotta larger than normal , 3.5 feet tall. Geometric Greek period.

Significant because it was used as a male grave marker and was made with emphasis on clarity and readability.

Temple of Hera I, Paestum , Italy, c. 500 B.C.E. Archaic Greek.

Significant because of the way the columns were build (bigger in the middle, they swell and look like they can't hold up the weight) and because every column was specifically carved for it's location.

Dying Warrior, sculpture from the left corner of the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 500-490 B.C.E., Marble. Archaic Greek.

Significant because of the creepy, archaic smile and the disregard of the fact that he's fucking dying.

Kouros , from a cemetery at Anavysos, near Athens, c. 530 B.C.E., Marble with remnants of paint. Archaic Greek.

Signifcant because of his more natural look, but still remaining the archaic hair style and face/almond shaped eyes.

Peplos Kore , from the Acropolis, Athens, c. 530 B.C.E., Marble. Archaic Greek.

Signficant because of the polychrome style.

Exekias , The Suicide of Ajax , c. 540 B.C.E., Black-figure decoration on an amphora, Ceramic. Archaic Greek.

The figures were made with slip, which made them become black when the piece was fired.

Euphronios (painter) and Euxitheos (potter) , Death of Sarpedon , c. 515 B.C.E., Red- figure decoration on a calyx krater, Ceramic. Archaic Greek.

Significant because of the red figure design, which basically meant they made the background out of slip. Was made by a very well known painter of the time.

Dying Warrior, sculpture from the left corner of the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 500-490 B.C.E., Marble. Classical Greek.

Signficiant because of how dramatic and different it is from the other Dying Warrior found from the same temple. This is a more accurate representation.

Athena, Herakles, and Atlas , metope relief from the frieze of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia. 460 B.C.E., B.C.E., Marble. Classical Greek.

Marks the begininng of the idealized body, showing Herakles who is considered one of the first athletes.

Riace Warrior , found in the sea off Riace, Italy, c. 460-450 B.C.E., Bronze with bone. Classical Greek.

Signficant because it still remains one of the few Greek bronze statues to ever be found.

Myron, Discus Thrower (Diskobolos) , Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 450 B.C.E., marble. Classical Greek.

Significant because of the naturalism, and how many copies have been made since the original.

Polykleitos, Achilles, also known as Spear Bearer (Doryphoros) , Roman copy after the bronze original of c. 450 – 440 B.C.E., Marble. Classical Greek Art.

Significant because of the immense naturalism of the human body/proportions and the contrapposto pose.

Kallikrates and Iktinos, Parthenon, Acropolis , Athens. 447-438 B.C.E. Classical Greek Art.

Significant because of the way they made the columns (they would have appeared to bow but they correct it) and for the political uses, like the meetings of the Polis.

Phidias, East Pediment of the Parthenon , c. 438-432 B.C.E., Marble. Classical Greek art.

Significant because of the wet drapery style, the nudity as a costume and because it shows the birth and life of Athena.

Phidias, Lapith Fighting a Centaur , metope relief from the Doric frieze on the south side of the Parthenon, c. 440s B.C.E., Marble.

Significant because it shows combat between the Greeks and the Persians. The Persians are shown evenly matched to make victory sweeter.

Mnesicles, Porch of the Maidens (Caryatid Porch), Erechtheion , Acropolis, Athens, 421-405 B.C.E. Classical Greek art.

The columns are statues of women, rather than the ionic columns. The fluting of the draperies are meant to make them ionic. The only asymmetrical building in the acropolis.

Nike (Victory) Adjusting Her Sandal , fragment of relief decoration from the parapet (now d estroyed), temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, last quarter of the 5 th century B.C.E. Classical Greek art.

Significant because of the thin, wet drapery style of the clothing and the naturalism.

Praxiteles or his followers, Hermes and the Infant Dionysos , a Hellenistic or Roman copy after a Late Classical 4 th -century B.C.E. original, Marble with remnants of red paint on the lips and hair. Late Classical Greek.

Significant because of the use of nudity as a costume to show the perfection of the Greeks.

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, composite of two similar Roman copies after the original marble of c. 350 B.C.E., Marble. Late Classical Greek.

Caught in the motion of putting on her clothes. She is shown nude because she is a goddess, but also because she is usually seen as a sexual figure.

Lysippos, The Scraper (Apoxyomenos) , Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 330 B.C.E., Marble. Late Classical Greek.

Significant because of his stance it appears he has just shifted his weight. His nervous expression is kind of the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Alexander the Greater Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos , detail of mosaic floor decoration from Pompeii, Italy, 1 st century CE Roman copy after a Greek painting of c. 310 B.C.E. Late Classical Greek.

Significant because of the extreme detail and the emphasis on physiological positions.

The Dying Gaul , Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 220 B.C.E., from Pergamon, Turkey, Marble. Hellenistic.

Significant because of the extreme amount of drama, and the nudity as a costume to make the gaul (the enemy) more credible making the victory sweeter.

Nike (Victory) of Samothrace , from the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace, c. 190 B.C.E, Marble. Hellenistic.

Significant because of the incredible amount of thought put into the figure in the space. The piece is also extremely dramatic.

Venus de Milo c.150-125 B.C.E., Marble. Hellenistic.

Significant because of the wet drapery style and the dynamic, reaching down to grab drapery pose.

Laocoön and His Sons , 2 nd -1 st century B.C.E. or a Roman copy dating to the 1 st century CE., Marble. Hellenistic.

Significant because of the extreme drama showing a family being attacked by snakes.

Apulu / Apollo, from Veii, c. 500 B.C.E., painted terracotta. Etruscan.

Significant because the use of Terrcaotta. The inside of the figure has to be hollow because when it is fired it will explode if it isn't.

She-Wolf (Capitoline Wolf), c. 500 B.C.E., with 15 th century additions (Romulus and Remus), Bronze, glass-paste eyes. Etruscan.

Significant because of the story behind the founding of Rome and Romulus/Remus.

Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri , 3 rd century B.C.E. Etruscan.

Significant because the chambers were essentially arranged with streets, making them "cities of the dead".

Sarcophagus , from Cerveteri, c. 520 B.C.E., Terracotta. Etruscan.

Significant because it was used for funerary purposes. Shows a couple at a party, which makes the female seem like she is more equal.

Porta Augusta , Perugia, Italy. 2 nd century B.C.E. Etruscan.

Significant because the use of quarbelling in the arches. If you removed one stine the entire structure would fall.

Augustus of Primaporta , Early 1 st century C.E. (perhaps a copy of a bronze statue of c. 20 B.C.E., Marble, lightly colored. Roman art.

Significant because it expresses not only military power but also political/diplomatic power.

Cityscape , detail of a wall painting from a bedroom in the House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale. Late 1 st century CE. Roman Art.

Significant because of the way they extended the space and made it look like architectural molding, even though it was just paint.

Still Life , detail of a wall painting from Herculaneum, c. 62-79 B.C.E. Roman.

Significant because the piece is done on a flat wall, but it is painted to create an illusion of depth.

Detail of a wall painting in the House of M. Lucretius Fronto , Pompeii, Mid-1 st century CE. Roman art.

Significant because it appears to sink into the wall and create a recession of space, even though it is just paint.

Apollodorus of Damascus , Main Hall of the Markets of Trajan, Rome, concrete and brick, 100-12 CE. Roman.

Significant because it is a groin vault, which uses support in the corners to let in more air and light. Makes a way more open space for offices and markets.

Colosseum , Rome , concrete and marble, 72-80 C.E. Roman art.

Significant because of the incredible capacity (50,000 people) and the fact that it could be vacated in only 5 minutes. Important political and community contexts (more important people sit closer to the center).

Pantheon, Rome , c. 118-128 CE. Concrete and granite. Roman art.

Significant because it was given to the Pope to keep as a temple. The light comes in from the Oculus and shines on statues of different Gods as the day progresses.

Arch of Titus, Rome , c. 81 CE, Concrete and white marble. Roman.

Significant because it was created to celebrate Titus's victory in Jerusalem, which resulted in the massacre of a large part of the Jewish population. It is part sculpture, part architecture.

Spoils from the Temple of Solomon, Jerusalem, relief in the passageway of the Arch of Titus, marble. Roman art.

Significant because it shows the Romans carrying away all of the things they stole from the Temple of Solomon after they defeated Jerusalem.

Column of Trajan, Rome . 113-16 or after 117 CE, Marble. Roman art.

Significant because it was built to commemorate Trajan's epic win against the Dacians. Reliefs on it tell the story of the Dacians war.

Young Flavian Woman , c. 90 CE, Marble. Roman art.

Significant because it uses a very idealistic style. Shows an extremely elaborate Roman hair style.

Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius , c. 176 C.E., Bronze, originally gilded. Roman art.

Significant because it is portrayed much larger than normal, and it has a lot of the features of a standing statue even though the subject is mounted on a horse (contrapposto).

The Tetrarchs , c. 300 CE, Porphyry. Venice. Roman art.

Significant because it is less more individualized, and has a lot of abstract elements.


Cremated soldier found in cooking pot at vast Roman camp in Israel

Homesick Phoenicians imported plants, animals to new Sicilian island home 3,000 years ago

Did David and Solomon's United Monarchy exist? Vast ancient mining operation may hold answers

Diving archaeologists find unique lion helmet from Punic wars 2,300 years ago

The location of biblical Bethsaida remains controversial, but scriptural references place the hometown of the apostles Philip, Andrew and Peter on the northern shores of the Sea of Galilee. E-Tell is located 1.5 kilometers north of the Sea of Galilee. (Other contenders for Bethsaida are el-Araj and el-Mesydiah).

The extraordinary vase had been found among the ruins of the Galilean village a few years ago. It was decorated in unmistakable Apulian style, characteristic of southern Italy. But it is only now, using sophisticated imaging tools and complex software, that Dr. Stefany Peluso with the help of the expeditions photographer, Hanan Shafir, could identify the scene shown on the vase, which has been dated to the 4th century B.C.E.

The shard shows the nymph Dione and goddess Aphrodite looking on as the goddess Athena is born, springing full-grown – and fully equipped with spear and shield - from the head of her father Zeus.

In Homer's Iliad, Aphrodite was the offspring of Dione, a godly creature of eastern origins that Zeus ravished. According the legends, Athenas advent would augur ill for the on-looking mother and daughter: During the Trojan war, Athena would take sides against Aphrodite, who protected Paris, prince of Troy.

The richly decorated potsherd is one of very few surviving copies of the eastern pediment of the Parthenon, the grand marble temple that was erected after the Persian wars, in honor of Athens' protective deity. The statue of the virgin goddess herself, Athena Parthenos, was made of gold and ivory and rose 10 meters high.

Decorated pottery shard dating to Hellenistic times, the same era the shard with Aphrodite and Dione dates to found in e-Tell, believed to be the site of ancient Bethsaida. Hanan Shafir

'Ferociously ideological'

In fact, one of the Parthenon decorations depicts the Greek triumph over the Trojans, emphasizing the long-standing enmity between the two peoples.

Few buildings in the history of architecture have been as ferociously ideological in design and decoration as the Parthenon," Prof. Daniel Mendelsohn of Bard College told Haaretz. "Everything about it—from its idiosyncratic incorporation of elements of all three architectural orders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian)—to the elaborate sculptures and bas-reliefs that adorned its pediments and entablature, bespeaks a desire on the part of the builders to underscore Athenian political, military, and ideological supremacy."

"Sculptures on both sides showcase the greatness of Athena, the city's divine protector: her birth is shown on the one side, and her victorious possession of Attica is shown on the other," he says.

"The myths represented on the metopes that surround the exterior entablature all allude to myths of Greek or Western victories over foreign or monstrous enemies such as the centaurs," Mendelsohn adds. "Above all, the continuous frieze that ran around the exterior wall of the inner sanctuary or cella depicts—as far as we know for the first time—a contemporary rather than a mythic event, the quadrennial city-wide festival in honor of Athena."

The Parthenon's decoration embraces all three ontological levels: divine, human, and bestial, Mendelsohn says, "as well as cannily conflating mythic and historical time: all as if to say that Athens herself was the culmination of myth and history."

But it is a fallacy that the Parthenon is now, often seen as a model of Greek architecture, Mendelsohn finishes: "It couldnt be more mistaken: its absolutely unlike any other Greek building, designed to assert its citys uniqueness at every level."

Finding Apulian pottery copying a scene from Athens' national epic, the birth of Athena, in a far-flung village in northern Galilee is unprecedented. The only other surviving artistic copy of the Parthenon frieze was found in Eleusis, within Greece itself, and Eleusis - which hosted the Mysteries - was located just 25 km from Athens, to its west.

Moreover, this type of pottery was not produced in large quantities, and for it to be decorated at all is even more rare. Peluso adds that not much is known about the distribution of Apulian pottery beyond Apulia.

Phoenician glass bead from e-Tell, believed to be the site of Bethsaida Hanan Shafir

To whom the prestigious item could have belonged is not known. Speculation is cheap: the owner could have been a rich merchant from Athens who was proud of his origin, or a trader hailing from "Greater Greece," as the Greeks called the colonies in south Italy.

Whatever the case, someone in Bethsaida could indulge his expensive taste.

Very expensive Phoenician dye

E-Tell, as said, is the site of the biblical city of Geshur. After the Assyrian destruction of Geshur in 732 B.C.E., the city was evidently reoccupied by Phoenician settlers from Tyre and Sidon, postulates Dr. Rami Arav of the University of Nebraska, Omaha. It became part of their colony, that would supply garments to the growing textile dyeing industry in the northern Levant.

The discovery of a figuring depicting a pregnant Astarte, the Phoenician fertile goddess, sitting on chair is certainly indicative of their presence, as does the discovery of Phoenician pottery - and murex shells.

The dye textile industry flourished in the 4th century B.C.E.: After Alexander the Great's conquests in the region, the Greek and Italian markets were opened to the Phoenician's dyed textiles, which were considered to be quite the luxury item.

The Phoenicians famously obtained their purple dye from mollusks (Murex trunculus and the Murex brandaris). The murex shells measure 8 cm in length at most. Their little necks house a little gland that contains only a single drop of fluid, which initially has the appearance and consistency of cream – but upon exposure to air and light, it gradually changes to deep violet or reddish-purple in color. These shellfish are found along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and the shades of color acquired from them vary according to their location.

So, the Phoenicians would break open the larger specimens and carefully remove the precious fluid, but the smaller shells were crushed in mortars.

In short, accumulating any amount of dye was a laborious, costly process. Hence, this dye was expensive, and garments dyed purple became the mark of wealthy people or those in high station:

And Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a garment of fine linen and purple: and the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad. (Esther 8:15)

"As demand for the dye grew in the west, the Phoenicians were compelled to fill the need by building new settlements in the Galilee, with the sole purpose of supplying textiles to the Greek cities," Arav suggests. "This lucrative trade permeated down to the colonies, and they were able to buy luxury goods from the Phoenician cities and from Greece and Italy. At Bethsaida, we have discovered gold and silver jewellery, high-quality pottery vessels, and silver coins."

The shard showing Athena's birth is from this Phoenician period. And although it is interesting to see how a copy of the Parthenon on pottery found its way to Bethsaida, it is also worth noting that in other mythologies, Dione is identified as Baalat Gebal, the goddess of the Phoenician city Byblos.


430 AD. The Roman Empire is beginning to crumble. The Vandals and other marauding tribes spill through the gaps in Roman defenses. And one of the greatest saints of the Christian church stands between his flock and the barbarian invaders. As he attempts to negotiate between the proud Roman authorities and the implacable Vandal king, Bishop Augustine recalls his own life before Christianity.

In this stirring and epic new film on the life of St. Augustine of Hippo, follow the great saint as he rises from his reckless days as a youth to his accomplishments as a renowned but dissolute orator. Though worldly success and riches come his way, including a position in the imperial court of Milan, satisfaction and peace elude him. It takes a confrontation with the Christian bishop Ambrose and the countless prayers offered by his patient mother, Monica, to break through his intellectual pride.

Starring Alessandro Preziosi, Monica Guerritore, Johannes Bandrup, and Franco Nero.

Roman Mythology

The transcript is available on Prezi as well.

Worksheets on the Romans
http://www.historyonthenet.com/Lessons/worksheets/romans.htm
http://www.historyonthenet.com/Lessons/worksheets/romans.htm
Pre-Built Course Contenthttps://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-18600905-dt-content-rid-103748127_4/xid-103748127_4

  • Identify two (2) specific aspects of the Athenian Acropolis and its Parthenon, and explain their significance to ancient Greek culture and the western heritage in the arts. Comment on one (1) feature of the ancient Greek theater that you find especially intriguing. Explain the manner in which audiences today might receive the plot of the comedy Lysistrata, and compare Lysistrata to a specific modern work of stage or film.
  • Chapter 5 (pp. 140-147) Athenian Acropolis and Art, (pp. 151-156), ancient Greek drama
  • Video with article from British Museum’s Elgin marbles (from the Acropolis) at http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/galleries/ancient_greece_and_rome/room_18_greece_parthenon_scu.aspx
  • Article with video of digital reconstruction of the Parthenon at http://arth251f11.blogs.wm.edu/2011/09/17/digital-reconstruction-of-the-parthenon/
  • Theater at Epidauros (double click on images to enlarge) at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/artifact?name=Epidauros%2C+Theater&object=Building
  • Select one (1) of the following famous ancient Roman structures that you find most fascinating: Colosseum, Circus Maximus, Pantheon, insulae, or bath complexes. After exploring the related resource(s) below on Rome, describe one (1) structure that you found most fascinating. Identify two (2) specific aspects of the structure in question, and make a comparison to specific aspects of modern urban life.

5 Golden Age Athens and the Hellenic World THE SCHOOL OF HELLAS 135

The Good Life and the Politics of Athens 136

Pericles and the School of Hellas 138

Beautiful Mind, Beautiful Body 139

Rebuilding the Acropolis 141

Philosophy and the Polis 147

The Philosophical Context 148

Plato’s Republic and Idealism 149

The Theater of the People 151

The Performance Space 155

The Hellenistic World 156

The Empire of Alexander the Great 156

Toward Hellenistic Art: Sculpture in the Late Classical Period 158

Aristotle: Observing the Natural World 159

Pergamon: Hellenistic Capital 160

5.1 from Euripides, Medea (431 bce) 137

5.2a–c from Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian Wars, Pericles’ Funeral Speech (ca. 410 bce) 138�


Main Article

Archaic Age

Compared with the lifelike statues of the Classical era, Archaic Greek sculpture is rigid and stylized (see Realism vs. Stylization). The principal types of Archaic sculpture are the kouros (plural kouroi), a nude male statue standing with one foot forward and the kore (plural korai), a clothed female statue standing with feet together.

Kouroi/kore statues, which were derived from the statues of Southwest Asia and Egypt, are roughly symmetrical and forward-facing, with simplified anatomy. The realism of these statues gradually increased, however, as the Archaic period drew on. The hair, eyes, lips, and clothing of ancient Greek statues (but not the skin) were often painted. C19,D56,H126,1

The Rise of Realism

The Classical age (ca. 500-330 BC) is considered the apex of Greek cultural achievement. Archaic stylization gave way to breathtaking realism of human anatomy and posture, as well as realistic drapery (loose fabric). One common quality of lifelike statues is contrapposto, in which the figure's weight is supported mainly by one leg, causing the torso to rotate slightly.

The Greek transition to realism is the most extraordinary revolution in the history of art. Throughout the world, the norm of art history is strict adherence to tradition (rather than experimentation), with stylistic change occurring very gradually (if at all). Stylization is also the norm: in most artistic traditions, the world is depicted as it is conceived, rather than as it physically appears.

In the Classical age, the ancient Greeks shattered these universal tendencies. Stylistic innovation occurred rapidly (as experimentation flourished and rival schools of art emerged), and stylization yielded to realism. F65 At the heart of this artistic shift was humanism, which propelled a great body of revolutionary ideas known collectively as the "Greek Awakening" (see Greek Awakening).

Classical Age

The four most renowned Greek sculptors all lived during the Classical age. One of these sculptors (Phidias) is remembered primarily for architectural sculpture, while the other three (Myron, Polyclitus, and Praxiteles) mainly produced statues. These artists may also be classified according to their preferred subjects: deities (Phidias, Praxiteles) or athletes (Myron, Polyclitus).

Classical Greek Sculpture
architectural statues
deities Phidias Praxiteles
athletes Myron, Polyclitus

Phidias, generally considered the greatest of all Greek sculptors, is known chiefly for designing the sculptures of the Parthenon . Like other Greek temples, the Parthenon was decorated with two types of sculpture: relief (sculpture upon a flat surface) and in-the-round (fully three-dimensional sculpture). A large portion of the Parthenon sculptures, known as the Elgin Marbles , is found in the British Museum.

Apart from the Parthenon, Phidias' most notable works are two colossal statues, one of Athena (for the Parthenon), the other of Zeus (for the Temple of Zeus at Olympia). These enormous statues (neither of which survives) were about forty feet tall and composed of ivory plates laid over wooden frames, with draperies of gold. 5

Polyclitus, often considered second only to Phidias, was the most influential theorist of Greek sculpture. Three of his main arguments were that a figure should have: ideal proportions (which he quantified precisely), balance between tense and relaxed muscle groups, and balanced orientation of limbs. 4 These considerations are evident in his three foremost works: Spear-bearer , Discus-bearer , and Athlete Tying on a Fillet .

"Fillet" is a synonym for headband. Headbands, like laurel wreaths, were often awarded to victorious athletes. Statues of athletes in ancient Greece had religious overtones, as victorious athletes were considered to be divinely favoured. F56

Polyclitus' career, like that of Phidias, lay in the heart of the Classical age (the late fifth century BC). His most renowned predecessor was Myron (early fifth century BC), who also focused on statues of athletes. Myron's greatest and most famous work is Discus-thrower.

Polyclitus was succeeded by Praxiteles, the foremost Greek sculptor of the fourth century BC, who (like Phidas) preferred to sculpt deities. Praxiteles’ style reigned in the sternness typical of Classical sculpture, infusing it with a new gentleness and delicacy. His masterpiece is Aphrodite of Cnidus. 6

Hellenistic Age

During the Hellenistic age, Greek culture flourished throughout the vast region conquered by Alexander. Athens fell into decline, as other cities around the eastern Mediterranean became the new leaders of Greek culture. Hellenistic sculptors tended to embrace dynamism and extravagance, in sharp contrast to the calm, restrained majesty of Classical statues (see Western Aesthetics). 1

No statue better illustrates the typical Hellenistic style than the group sculpture Laocoön and his Sons . This work depicts a scene from Homer's Iliad, in which the Trojan priest Laocoön and his two sons are killed by sea serpents (at Athena's bidding) when he attempts to warn his people about the Trojan horse.

The most famous Hellenistic work may be Winged Victory of Samothrace , another masterpiece of dynamism. Victory's robes are dramatically ruffled as though she were facing into a storm.

Another development of the Hellenistic period was the embrace of real people as appropriate subjects for Greek sculpture. During the Classical age, sculptors were preoccupied with physically "perfect", youthful figures. Hellenistic sculptors, on the other hand, began to introduce elements of harsh reality, including age, injury, and un-idealized features. (This embrace of "real people" would be repeated in the Baroque age, following the idealizing classicism of the Renaissance.) H180

Etruscan Sculpture

The stylistic development of Etruscan sculpture largely parallels that of the Greeks, due to the strong cultural influence of the latter on the former (via Greek settlements in southern Italy). Consequently, Etruscan sculpture of the Archaic period is heavily stylized, while that of the Classical period is often quite realistic. The Etruscans were fascinated with funerary matters, as reflected in one of their most striking forms: the sculpted sarcophagus , in which figures are presented as lying on the coffin lid as though it were a couch. The most famous Etruscan statues may be two animal bronzes, Chimera of Arezzo and Capitoline Wolf , which strike a fantastic blend of realism and stylization.


Archaic Art, Phase II Continued Blackfigure dinos vase for mixing wine, signed by Sophilos as painte - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

. by flouting divine order, but redemption and moral . Temple dedicated to Athena Parthenos, the Parthenon, the largest Doric temple up to that time. . &ndash PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Watch the video: The British Museum: The Parthenon Marbles (July 2022).


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