Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs: The Richest Collection of Sepulchral Monuments of the Roman Provinces

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs: The Richest Collection of Sepulchral Monuments of the Roman Provinces

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The Romans left an indelible mark on the societies they conquered. In many of their former provinces there are splendid remains of Roman civilization and culture which includes early Christian monuments. One of the most remarkable in Europe is the Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs, Hungary. Here visitors can really capture a sense of the past and be amazed at the architectural and artistic brilliance of an early Christian community.

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs is a Visual Feast

The necropolis is a complex consisting of early Christian burials and places of worships. It has a large variety of burial structures; among these are brick tombs, stone burial structures, sarcophagi, and crypts. There are also several chapels and a mausoleum. The cemetery is an extensive complex and it has an estimated 500 burials. This necropolis is composed of two stories all located underground.

The first floor of the complex, which is reinforced by buttresses, is a mausoleum that acted as a memorial chapel. Once the building would have been covered by arches and there is a fine example of a 3 rd century marble sarcophagus on its southern wall. In the church, stairs lead down to the burial area and the necropolis proper. There are other chapels in the site that also have tombs and crypts beneath them.

Theatrical Mask on a Sarcophagus at Pécs (Casaba P / CC BY 4.0 )

There are many interesting burial monuments within the necropolis. Among these are the so-called Jug Tomb, named after the jug and a cup engraved on one of its sides, which was a reference to the sacrament of Holy Communion. There are other stone coffins and sarcophagi decorated with many images, geometric patterns, and even figures of angels in the burial area. One of the finest structures in the complex is the large tomb almost a hall, known as the Peter & Paul Tomb. It is important to remember that some tombs were not just places of burial, but memorial chapels where the relatives of the dead would gather and pray for the soul of the deceased.

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Remains of a mural at Pécs (Mehlich, J / CC BY 3.0 )

The necropolis has many other fine examples of early Romano-Christian art. The remains of murals and frescoes can still be seen on tomb and chapel walls and illustrate both biblical scenes, such as Adam and Eve and Daniel in the lion’s den, as well as Christian iconography. The geometric patterns are even found on the murals. Many of the wall paintings are badly damaged, but they are still very impressive. The artistic styles preserved in the necropolis of Pécs are similar to mainstream Roman artistic styles from the era.

Pécs Was 2nd Century Roman Colony

Pécs was originally known as Sopianae and was founded by the Romans as a colony in the 2 nd century AD. It soon became a flourishing provincial center. From the 4 th century the growing Christian community began to build chapels and churches and because they were sacred sites, members of the elite wanted to be buried in them. This led to the practice of burying the deceased under the ground and over time this led to the development of the necropolis. The scale of the cemetery indicates that the Christian community flourished here for many centuries. It seems that even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the coming of the Germanic barbarians, the Christians continued to add to the necropolis and used Roman artistic styles to decorate tombs. Sopianae became an important ecclesiastical center under first the Franks and later the Hungarian Kingdom.

Sarcophagus and mural ( Pecold /Fotolia)

The necropolis has been excavated since the 18 th century. Unlike many other archaeological sites, those who excavated it were very careful and preserved much of what they found. This allowed later generations to restore the chapels and the tombs and artifacts have been returned to their original locations. In the modern era, the site was fully excavated, and the monuments were conserved. The necropolis has been the subject of several restoration projects since the 1960s. The Christian burial ground and its buildings is now a listed historic monument and also a designated archaeological site while the necropolis is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Location of the Early Christian Necropolis Pécs

Pécs is a large city located in the south-west of Hungary. The two stories of the necropolis are located under a public square in the heart of the city and only a brief way from the city’s Catholic Cathedral. An admission fee is required to view the painted chapels. There is plenty of accommodation in the vicinity.

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)

In the 4th century, a remarkable series of decorated tombs were constructed in the cemetery of the Roman provincial town of Sopianae (modern Pécs). These are important both structurally and architecturally, since they were built as underground burial chambers with memorial chapels above the ground. The tombs are important also in artistic terms, since they are richly decorated with murals of outstanding quality depicting Christian themes.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Nécropole paléochrétienne de Pécs (Sopianae)

Au IV e siècle, une série remarquable de tombeaux ornés fut érigée dans le cimetière de la ville romaine provinciale de Sopianae (la Pécs moderne). Ces tombeaux sont importants, tant du point de vue structurel qu'architectural, car ils ont été construits sous terre comme des chambres funéraires surmontées de chapelles commémoratives en surface. Ils sont également importants sur le plan artistique dans la mesure où ils sont richement ornés de peintures murales d'une qualité exceptionnelle représentant des thèmes chrétiens.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

مقبرة بيك الكبيرة المسيحية القديمة في مدينة سوبيانايي

شُيّدت في القرن الرابع مجموعة مدهشة من الأضرحة المزيّنة في مقبرة مدينة سوبيانايي الرومانية. واتّسمت هذه الأضرحة بأهمية بالغة إن من حيث بنائها أو هندستها لأنها شُيّدت تحت الأرض كغرف جنائزية تقوم على سطحها كنائس تذكارية. وتتخذ هذه الأضرحة أهميةً أخرى من حيث التصميم الفني إذ أنها زُيّنت زينةً غنية برسوم جدرانية ذات نوعية استثنائية تحمل رموزا دينية.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Раннехристианское захоронение в городе Печ (древнеримская Сопиана)

В IV в. на кладбище древнеримского центра провинции – города Сопиана (современный Печ) - было сооружено несколько богато украшенных гробниц. Подземные склепы и наземные мемориальные часовни выделяются в строительно-техническом и архитектурном отношении. Гробницы также имеют художественное значение, так как богато украшены великолепными настенными изображениями на христианские темы.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Necrópolis paleocristiana de Pécs (Sopianae)

En el siglo IV se construyó un excepcional conjunto de tumbas ornamentadas en el cementerio de la ciudad provincial romana de Sopianae (la actual Pécs). Estos sepulcros poseen un gran valor estructural y arquitectónico, porque fueron excavados bajo tierra como cámaras funerarias y encima de ellos se construyeron capillas funerarias. También poseen un valor artístico importante porque están ricamente ornamentados con excelentes pinturas murales de temática cristiana.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Vroegchristelijke necropolis van Pécs (Sopianae)

In de 4e eeuw bouwde men een opmerkelijke reeks versierde graven op de begraafplaats van de Romeinse provinciestad Sopianae (het moderne Pécs). De tombes zijn belangrijk qua structuur en architectuur omdat ze als ondergrondse grafkamers met gedenktekenkapellen boven de grond werden gebouwd. De graven zijn ook van artistiek belang ze zijn rijkelijk versierd met muurschilderingen van uitstekende kwaliteit die christelijke thema’s uitbeelden. De stad Sopianae werd in de 2e eeuw gesticht door kolonisten uit West-Pannonia en Italië. Sopianae was vooral in de 4e eeuw welvarend door de ligging op het kruispunt van verschillende belangrijke handelsroutes.

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Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

In the 4th century A.D. a remarkable series of decorated tombs were constructed in the cemetery in the town of Sopianae, in the Roman Province of Pannonia, the ruins of which survived under the ground and are situated in the current city of Pécs, in South Hungary. The burial chambers, chapels and mausoleum excavated on the site of the Sopianae cemetery form a complex that bears witness to an ancient culture and civilization that had a lasting impact. It is the richest collection of structural types of sepulchral monuments in the northern and western Roman provinces reflecting a diversity of cultural sources. These monuments are important both structurally and architecturally as they were built above ground and served as both burial chambers and memorial chapels. They are also significant in artistic terms because of their richly decorated murals of outstanding quality depicting Christian themes.

The Roman cemetery was found by archaeological excavations which began two centuries ago. Subsequent excavations revealed that the early Christian complex of monuments provides exceptional evidence of a historical continuity that spanned the turbulent centuries from the decline of the Roman Empire in the 4th century to the conquest of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. Sixteen structures constitute the World Heritage property, although the cemetery includes over five hundred more modest graves which cluster around the major monuments.

Criterion (iii): The burial chambers and memorial chapels of the Sopianae cemetery bear outstanding testimony to the strength and faith of the Christian communities of the Late Roman Empire.

Criterion (iv): The unique Early Christian sepulchral art and architecture of the northern and western Roman provinces is exceptionally well and fully illustrated by the Sopianae cemetery at Pécs.

The property includes a collection of 16 monuments which are part of the Early Christian Necropolis of Sopianae. They have been revealed through archaeological excavations which are ongoing further delimitation of the property may change as a result of this ongoing research. With regard to the surviving attributes, all of which are under the ground level today, the intactness of the ruins and of their historic interrelations is sustained to the extent possible considering that subsequent urban layers, including the contemporary living city, are sedimented over the property.


Burial chambers, memorial chapels and other sepulchral remains and fragments excavated since the 18th century have been preserved at their original location following scientific research and restoration, using techniques available at the given time as well as technical solutions available today. Modern interventions necessary to conserve and present the remains are distinguished from original fabric.

Protection and management requirements

The property and its buffer zone are situated within a Historic Monuments Area declared in 1966. The Roman cemetery is also protected as an archaeological site. At local level, City Government Order No. 40 of 1994 declared the historic centre of the city and the area of the Roman cemetery a historic zone. The city has also passed several other ordinances in relation to the protection of historical and architectural values within the context of city development. Ownership of the sixteen monuments is varied: two belong to the Hungarian State, thirteen to the City of Pécs, and one to Baranya County.

Based on National World Heritage Act of 2011 , a new management plan will enter into legal force as a governmental decree and will be reviewed at least every seven years. The management body is the World Heritage Division of Zsolnay Heritage Management Nonprofit Ltd. Once finalized and approved, the Management Plan and the management body will provide clear governance arrangements that involve representatives of different stakeholders. Based on the World Heritage Act , the state of the property, as well as threats and preservation measures will be regularly monitored and reported to the National Assembly the management plan will be reviewed at least every seven years. Balance has to be kept between the preservation of authenticity and contemporary needs of presentation. In order to ensure increased authenticity of the attributes, modernisation of earlier technical solutions is an on-going management task. Ongoing research within the area of the former Necropolis may provide a base for the extension of the property in the future.

51. Arch of Caracalla at Volubilis

flickr/Irene Rx

The marble Arch of Caracalla, right in the middle of Volubilis, was erected in 211 AD in honor of the Emperor Caracalla and his mother, Julia Domna. The arch is surmounted by a bronze chariot and with its Corinthian columns remains an impressive Roman monument.

3. Carthage

Tunisia, Carthage. (Credit: DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/Getty Images)

Best known as ancient Rome’s rival in the Punic Wars, Carthage was a North African commercial hub that flourished for over 500 years. The city-state began its life in the 8th or 9th century B.C. as a Phoenician settlement in what is now Tunisia, but it later grew into a sprawling seafaring empire that dominated trade in textiles, gold, silver and copper. At its peak, its capital city boasted nearly half a million inhabitants and included a protected harbor outfitted with docking bays for 220 ships. Carthage’s influence eventually extended from North Africa to Spain and parts of the Mediterranean, but its thirst for expansion led to increased friction with the burgeoning Roman Republic. Beginning in 264 B.C., the ancient superpowers clashed in the three bloody Punic Wars, the last of which ended in 146 B.C. with the near-total destruction of Carthage. Today, almost all that remains of the once-mighty empire is a series of ruins in the city of Tunis.

World Heritage Committee Inscribes 61 New Sites on World Heritage List

Cairns - UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, meeting since November 27 in Cairns, Australia, has inscribed 61 new cultural and natural sites on the World Heritage.

The List now has 690 sites of "exceptional universal value" in 122 countries. Sites in Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Nicaragua and Suriname are on the List for the first time. Ten of the new sites are properties inscribed for natural values, 50 are inscribed for cultural values, and one site exhibits mixed cultural and natural values. The following descriptions include the Natural (N) or Cultural (C) criteria for which the sites were inscribed.

The 10 natural sites inscribed this year are:


Ischigualasto - Talampaya Natural Parks (N i)
These two contiguous parks, extending over 275,300 hectares (ha) in the desert region on the western border of the Sierra Pampeanas of central Argentina, contain the most complete fossil record known from the Triassic Period (245-208 million years ago). Six geological formations in the parks contain fossils of a wide range of ancestors of mammals, revealing the evolution of vertebrates and the nature of palaeo-environments in the Triassic Period.


The Greater Blue Mountains Area (N ii iv)
The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 1.03 million ha of mostly forested landscape on a deeply-incised sandstone plateau 60-180km inland from central Sydney. The site comprises eight protected areas in two blocks separated by a transportation and urban development corridor. The site is particularly noted for its wide and balanced representation of eucalyptus habitats including wet and dry sclerophyll, mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps, wetlands, and grassland. Ninety eucalyptus taxa (13% of the world's total) occur in the Greater Blue Mountains. The sites hosts several evolutionary relic species such as the Wollemia pine, which have persisted in highly-restricted microsites.


Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (N ii iv)
The National Park is one of the largest (1,523,000 ha) and most intact parks in the Amazon Basin. With an altitudinal range of 200m to nearly 1,000m, it is the site of a rich mosaic of habitat types from Cerrado savannah and forest to upland evergreen Amazonian forests. The park boasts an evolutionary history dating back over a billion years to the Precambrian period. An estimated 4,000 species of flora as well as over 600 bird species and viable populations of many globally endangered or threatened vertebrate species live in the park.


Jaú National Park (N ii iv). Jaú National Park is the largest national park in the Amazon Basin, and one of the planet's richest regions in terms of biological diversity. Established in 1986 to protect the entire watershed of the Jaú River, the park has an area of 2,272,000 ha. The Jaú River is considered the best example of a "blackwater ecosystem" (the name is taken from the colour given to the water by the decomposition of organic matter and the lack of terrestrial sediments). The park not only protects the hydrological basin of the Jaú River, but also a large proportion of the diverse species associated with the blackwater system.

Pantanal Conservation Area (N ii iii iv)
The Pantanal Conservation Complex consists of a cluster of four protected areas with a total area of 187,818 ha. Located in western central Brazil at the south-west corner of the State of Mato Grosso, the site represents 1.3% of Brazil's Pantanal region, one of the world's largest freshwater wetland ecosystems. The headwaters of the region's two major river systems, the Cuiabá and the Paraguay rivers, are located here, and the abundance and diversity of its vegetation and animal life are spectacular.


Isole Eolie (Aeolian Islands) (N i)
The Aeolian Islands provide an outstanding record of volcanic island-building and destruction, and ongoing volcanic phenomena. Studied since at least the 18th century, the islands have provided the science of vulcanology with examples of two types of eruption (Vulcanian and Strombolian) and thus have featured prominently in the education of geologists for more than 200 years. The site continues to enrich the field of vulcanology.


Kinabalu Park (N ii iv)
Kinabalu Park, in the State of Sabah on the northern end of the island of Borneo, is dominated by Mount Kinabalu (4,095m), the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea. It has a very wide range of habitats, ranging from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest to tropical mountain forest, sub-alpine forest and scrub on the higher elevations. It has been designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia and is exceptionally rich in species with examples of flora from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malaysia, as well as pan-tropical flora.


The Gunung Mulu National Park (N i ii iii iv)
Important both for its high biodiversity and for its karst features, Gunung Mulu National Park, on the island of Borneo in the State of Sarawak, is the most studied tropical karst area in the world. The 52,864-ha park contains 17 vegetation zones, exhibiting some 3,500 species of vascular plants. Its palm species are exceptionally rich, with 109 species in 20 genera noted. The park is dominated by Gunung Mulu, a 2,377m-high pinnacle karst, which is said to be the most cavernous mountain in the world. At least 295km of explored caves provide a spectacular sight and are home to millions of cave swiftlets and bats. The Sarawak Chamber, 600m by 415m and 80m high, is the largest known cave chamber in the world.


Central Suriname Nature Reserve (N ii iv)
The Central Suriname Nature Reserve comprises 1.6 million ha of primary tropical forest of west-central Suriname. It protects the upper watershed of the Coppename River and covers a range of topography and ecosystems of notable conservation value due to its pristine state. Its montane and lowland forests contain a high diversity of plant life with almost 6,000 vascular plant species collected to date. The Reserve's animals are typical of the region and include the jaguar, giant armadillo, giant river otter, tapir, sloths, eight species of primates and 400 bird species.


The High Coast (N i)
The High Coast is an archipelago located on the west shore of the Gulf of Bothnia, a northern extension of the Baltic Sea. The area covers 142,500 ha including a marine component of 80,000 ha, which includes a number of offshore islands. The irregular topography of the region, a series of lakes, inlets and flat hills rising to 350m, is largely shaped by the combined processes of glaciation, glacial retreat and the emergence of new land from the sea which continues today at a rate of 0.9m per century. Since the final retreat of the ice from the High Coast 9,600 years ago, the uplift has been in the order of 285-294m which is the highest evident "rebound" known to man.

The 50 cultural sites inscribed this year are:


The Jesuit Block and the Jesuit Estancias of Córdoba (C ii iv)
The Jesuit Block in Córdoba, heart of the former Jesuit Province, contains the core buildings of the Jesuit system: the university, the church and residence of the Society of Jesus, and the college. Along with the five estancias, or farming estates, they contain religious and secular buildings that illustrate the unique religious, social, and economic experiment carried out by in South America for a period of over 150 years in the 17th and 18th centuries.


The Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin and the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots (C ii iii)
The cathedral and churches of Echmiatsin and the archaeological remains at Zvartnots graphically illustrate the evolution and development of the Armenian central-domed cross-hall type of church, which exerted a profound influence on architectural and artistic development in the region.


The Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley (C ii)
The monastery of Geghard contains a number of churches and tombs, most of them cut into the rock, which illustrate the very peak of Armenian medieval architecture. The complex of medieval buildings is set into a landscape of great natural beauty, surrounded by towering cliffs at the entrance to the Azat Valley.


The Wachau Cultural Landscape (C ii iv)
The Wachau is a stretch of the Danube Valley between Melk and Krems, a landscape of high visual quality. It preserves in an intact and visible form many traces - in terms of architecture, urban design, and agricultural use, principally for the cultivation of vines - of its evolution since prehistoric times.


Walled City of Baku (C iv)
Built on a site inhabited since the Palaeolithic period, the Walled City of Baku reveals evidence of Zoroastrian, Sassanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani Ottoman, and Russian presence in cultural continuity. The Inner City (Icheri Sheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls. The 12th-century Maiden Tower (Giz Galasy) is built over earlier structures dating from the 7th to 6th centuries BC, and the 15th-century Shirvanshahs' Palace is one of the pearls of Azerbaijan's architecture.


The Mir Castle Complex (C ii iv)
The construction of this castle began at the end of the 15th century, in Gothic style. It was subsequently extended and reconstructed, first in the Renaissance and then in the Baroque style. After being abandoned for nearly a century and suffering severe damage during the Napoleonic period, the castle was restored at the end of the 19th century, with the addition of a number of other elements and the landscaping of the surrounding area as a park. Its present form is graphic testimony to its often turbulent history.


Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons) (C i iii iv)
The Neolithic flint mines at Spiennes, covering more than 100 ha, are the largest and earliest concentration of ancient mines in Europe. They are also remarkable for the diversity of technological solutions used for extraction and for the fact that they are directly linked to a settlement of the same period.

Historic Centre of Brugge (C ii iv vi)
Brugge is an outstanding example of a medieval historic settlement, which has maintained its historic fabric as this has evolved over the centuries, and where original Gothic constructions form part of the town's identity. As one of the commercial and cultural capitals of Europe, Brugge developed cultural links to different parts of the world. It is closely associated with the school of Flemish Primitive painting.

Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai (C ii iv)
The Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Tournai was built in the first half of the 12th century. It is especially distinguished by a Romanesque nave of extraordinary dimensions, a wealth of sculpture on its capitals and a transept topped by five towers, all precursors of the Gothic style. The choir, rebuilt in the 13th century, is in the pure Gothic style.

The Major Town Houses of the architect Victor Horta (Brussels) (C i ii iv)
The four major town houses - Hôtel Tassel, Hôtel Solvay, Hôtel van Eetvelde, and Maison & Atelier Horta - located in Brussels and designed by the architect Victor Horta, one of the earliest exponents of Art Nouveau, are some of the most remarkable pioneering works of architecture of the end of the 19th century. The stylistic revolution represented by these works is characterised by their open plan, the diffusion of light, and the brilliant joining of the curved lines of decoration with the structure of the building.


Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (C iii iv)
The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between 500 and 900 AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilisation, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.


The Churches of Chiloé (C ii iii)
The 14 churches of Chiloé represent the only example in Latin America of a rare form of ecclesiastical wooden architecture. They were built on the initiative of the Jesuit Peripatetic Mission in the 17th and 18th centuries and bear testimony to a successful fusion of indigenous and European culture and technical expertise.


Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun (C ii iv v)
The two traditional villages of Xidi and Hongcun preserve to a remarkable extent the appearance of non-urban settlements of a type that largely disappeared or was transformed during the last century. Their street plan, their architecture and decoration, and the integration of houses with comprehensive water systems are unique surviving examples.

Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (C i ii iii iv vi)
The Ming and Qing imperial tombs are natural sites modified by human influence, carefully chosen according to the principles of geomancy (Fengshui) to house numerous buildings of traditional architectural design and decoration. They illustrate the continuity over five centuries of a world view and concept of power specific to feudal China.

Longmen Grottoes (C i ii iii)
The grottoes and niches of Longmen contain the largest and most impressive collection of Chinese art of the late Northern Wei and Tang Dynasties (316-907). These works, entirely devoted to the Buddhist religion, represent the high point of Chinese stone carving.

Mount Qincheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System. (C ii iv ) Construction of the Dujiangyan irrigation system began in the 3rd century BC, and still controls the waters of the Minjiang River and distributes it to the fertile farmland of the Chengdu plains. Mount Qincheng was the birthplace of Taoism, which is celebrated in a series of ancient temples.


Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik (C i ii iv)
The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik (1431-1535), on the Dalmatian coast, bears witness to the considerable exchanges in the field of monumental arts between Northern Italy, Dalmatia and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. The three architects who succeeded one another in the construction of the Cathedral - Francesco di Giacomo, Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus and Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino - developed a structure built entirely from stone and using unique construction techniques for the vaulting and the dome of the Cathedral. The form and the decorative elements of the Cathedral also illustrate the successful fusion of Gothic and Renaissance art.

Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the South-East of Cuba (C iii iv)
The remains of the 19th- century coffee plantations in the foothills of the Sierra Maestra are unique evidence of a pioneer form of agriculture in a difficult terrain. They throw considerable light on the economic, social, and technological history of the Caribbean and Latin American region.

Czech Republic

Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc (C i iv)
This memorial column, erected in the early years of the 18th century, is the most outstanding example of a type of monument specific to central Europe. In the characteristic regional style known as Olomouc Baroque and rising to a height of 35m, it is decorated with many fine religious sculptures, the work of the distinguished Moravian artist Ondrej Zahner.


Kronborg Castle (C iv)
Located on a strategically important site commanding the Sund, the stretch of water between Denmark and Sweden, the Royal castle of Kronborg at Helsingør (Elsinore) is of immense symbolic value to the Danish people and played a key role in the history of northern Europe in the 16th- 18th centuries. Work began on the construction of this outstanding Renaissance castle in 1574, and its defences were reinforced according to the canons of the period's military architecture in the late 17th century. It has remained intact to the present day. It is world-renowned as Elsinore, the setting of Shakespeare's Hamlet.


The Loire Valley between Chalonnes and Sully-sur-Loire (C i ii iv)
The Loire Valley is an outstanding cultural landscape of great beauty, containing historic towns and villages, great architectural monuments (the châteaux), and cultivated lands formed by many centuries of interaction between their population and the physical environment, primarily the river Loire itself. The site includes the Château and Estate of Chambord, which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1981.


The Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz (C ii iv)
The Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz is an exceptional example of landscape design and planning of the Age of the Enlightenment, the 18th century. Its diverse components - outstanding buildings, landscaped parks and gardens in the English style, and subtly modified expanses of agricultural land - serve aesthetic, educational, and economic purposes in an exemplary manner.

Monastic Island of Reichenau (C iii iv vi)
The island of Reichenau on Lake Constance preserves the traces of the Benedictine monastery, founded in 724, which exercised remarkable spiritual, intellectual and artistic influence. The churches of St Mary, St Peter and St Paul, and St George, built between the 9th and 11th centuries, provide a panorama of early medieval monastic architecture in central Europe. Their wall paintings bear witness to impressive artistic activity.


The Pécs (Sopianae) Early Christian Cemetery (C iii iv)
In the 4th century, a remarkable series of decorated tombs were constructed in the cemetery of the Roman provincial town of Sopianae (modern-day Pécs). These are important both structurally and architecturally, as they were built underground and served both as burial chambers and memorial chapels, and also in artistic terms, as they are richly decorated with murals of outstanding quality depicting Christian themes.


Assisi the Basilica of San Francesco and Other Franciscan Sites (C i ii iii iv vi)
Assisi a medieval city built on a hill, is the birthplace of Saint Francis, closely associated with the work of the Franciscan Order. Its medieval art masterpieces, such as the Basilica of San Francesco and paintings by Cimabue, Pietro Lorenzetti Simone Martini and Giotto, have made Assisi a fundamental reference point for the development of Italian and European art and architecture.

City of Verona (C ii iv)
The historic city of Verona was founded in the 1st century B.C. It particularly flourished under the rule of the Scaliger family in the 13th and 14th centuries and as part of the Republic of Venice from the 15th to 18th centuries. Verona has preserved a remarkable number of monuments from antiquity, the medieval and Renaissance periods, and represents an outstanding example of a military stronghold.


Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu (C ii iii vi)
Five hundred years of Ryukyuan history (12th-17th century) are represented by this group of sites and monuments. The ruins of the castles, on imposing elevated sites, are evidence for the social structure over much of that period, while the sacred sites provide mute testimony to the rare survival of an ancient form of religion into the modern age. The wide- ranging economic and cultural contacts of the Ryukyu Islands over that period gave rise to a unique culture.

Lithuania/Russian Federation

Curonian Spit (C v)
Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98km long and 0.4-4km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and tide. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat the erosion of the Spit, dramatically illustrated by continuing stabilisation and reforestation projects.


Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House) (C i ii)
The Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht was commissioned by Ms Truus Schröder-Schräder, designed by the architect Gerrit Thomas Rietveld, and built in 1924. This small family house, with its interior, the flexible spatial arrangement, and the visual and formal qualities, was a manifesto of the ideals of the De Stijl group of artists and architects in the Netherlands in the 1920s, and has since been considered one of the icons of the Modern Movement in architecture.


Ruins of León Viejo (C iii iv)
León Viejo is one of the oldest Spanish colonial settlements in the Americas. It did not develop and so its ruins are outstanding testimony to the social and economic structures of the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. Moreover, the site has immense archaeological potential.

The Frankincense Trail (C iii iv)
The frankincense trees of Wadi Dawkah and the remains of the caravan oasis of Shisr and the ports of Khor Rori and al-Balid vividly illustrate the trade in frankincense that flourished in this region for many centuries, as one of the most important trading activities of the ancient and medieval world.

Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa (C i iv)
The Historic Centre of Arequipa, built in volcanic sillar rock, represents an integration of European and native building techniques and characteristics, expressed in the admirable work of colonial masters and Criollo and Indian masons. This combination of influences is illustrated by the city's robust walls, archways and vaults, courtyards and open spaces, and the intricate Baroque decoration of its facades.

Republic of Korea

Koch'ang, Hwasun, and Kanghwa Dolmen Sites (C iii)
The prehistoric cemeteries at Koch'ang, Hwasun, and Kanghwa contain many hundreds of examples of dolmens - tombs from the 1st millennium B.C. constructed of large stone slabs. They form part of the Megalithic culture, found in many parts of the world, but nowhere in such a concentrated form.

Kyongju Historic Areas (C ii iii)
The Kyongju Historic Areas contain a remarkable concentration of outstanding examples of Korean Buddhist art, in the form of sculptures, reliefs, pagodas, and the remains of temples and palaces from the flowering, between the 7th and 10th centuries, of this form of unique artistic expression.

Russian Federation

Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin (C ii iii iv)
Built on an ancient site, the Kazan Kremlin dates from the Muslim period of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. It was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552 and became the Christian See of the Volga Land. The only surviving Tatar fortress in Russia and an important place of pilgrimage, the Kazan Kremlin consists of an outstanding group of historic buildings dating from the 16th to 19th centuries, integrating remains of earlier structures of the 10th to 16th centuries.

The Ensemble of Ferapontov Monastery (C i iv)
The Ferapontov Monastery, in the Vologda region in northern Russia, is an exceptionally well-preserved and complete example of a Russian Orthodox monastic complex of the 15th-17th centuries, a period of great significance in the development of the unified Russian state and its culture. The architecture of the monastery is outstanding in its inventiveness and purity. The interior is graced by the magnificent wall paintings of Dionisy, the greatest Russian artist of the end of the 15th century.


Island of Saint-Louis (C ii iv)
Founded as a French colonial settlement in the 17th century, Saint-Louis was urbanised in the mid-19th century. It was the capital of Senegal from 1872 to 1957 and played an important cultural and economic role in the whole of West Africa. The location of the town on an island at the mouth of the Senegal River, its regular town plan, the system of quays, and the characteristic colonial architecture give Saint- Louis its distinctive appearance and identity.


Bardejov Town Conservation Reserve (C iii iv)
Bardejov is a small but exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a fortified medieval town, which typifies the urbanisation in this region. Among other remarkable features, it also contains a small Jewish quarter around a fine 18th-century synagogue.


Archaeological Site of Atapuerca (C iii v)
The caves of the Sierra de Atapuerca contain a rich fossil record of the earliest human beings in Europe, from nearly one million years ago and extending up to the current day. They represent an exceptional reserve of data, the scientific study of which provides priceless information about the appearance and the way of life of these remote human ancestors.

Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí (C iii iv)
The narrow Vall de Boí valley, is situated in the high Pyrénées, in the Alta Ribagorça region and is surrounded by steep mountains. Each village in the valley contains a Romanesque church, and is surrounded by a pattern of enclosed fields. There are extensive seasonally-used grazing lands on the higher slopes.

The Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco (C ii iii)
Tárraco (modern-day Tarragona) was a major administrative and mercantile city in Roman Spain and the centre of the Imperial cult for all the Iberian provinces. It was endowed with many fine buildings, and parts of these have been revealed in a series of exceptional excavations. Although most of the remains are fragmentary, many preserved beneath more recent buildings, they present a vivid picture of the grandeur of this Roman provincial capital.

Palmeral of Elche (C ii v)
The Palmeral of Elche, a landscape of groves of date palms, was formally laid out, with elaborate irrigation systems, during the Arab occupation of much of the Iberian peninsula, starting in the 8th century AD. However, there is evidence that their origins are much older, dating back to the Phoenician and Roman settlement of the region. The Palmeral is a unique example of Arab agricultural practices on the European continent.

The Roman Walls of Lugo (C iv)
The walls of Lugo were built in the later part of the 2nd century to defend the Roman town of Lucus. The entire circuit survives intact and is the finest example of late Roman fortifications in western Europe.


The Agricultural Landscape of Southern Öland (C iv v)
The southern part of the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea is dominated by a vast limestone plateau. Human beings have lived here for some five thousand years and adapted their way of life to the physical constraints of the island. As a consequence, the landscape is unique, with abundant evidence of continuous human settlement from prehistoric times to the present day.


Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market Town of Bellinzone (C iv)
The Bellinzone site consists of a group of fortifications grouped around the castle of Castelgrande, which stands on a rocky peak looking out over the entire Ticino valley. Running from the castle, a series of fortified walls protect the ancient town and block the passage through the valley. A second castle forms an integral part of the fortifications a third but separate castle (Sasso Corbaro) was built on an isolated rocky promontory south-east of the other fortifications.

United Kingdom

Blaenavon Industrial Landscape (C iii iv)
The area around Blaenavon is evidence of the pre-eminence of South Wales as the world's major producer of iron and coal in the 19th century. All the necessary elements can still be seen - coal and ore mines, quarries, a primitive railway system, furnaces, workers' homes, and the social infrastructure of their community.

The Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda (C iv)
The Town of St George is an outstanding example of the earliest English urban settlement in the New World. Its associated fortifications graphically illustrate the development of English military engineering from the 17th to the 20th century, being adapted to take account of the development of artillery over this period.

United Republic of Tanzania


Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (C iii iv)
The historic centre of Shakhrisyabz contains a collection of exceptional monuments and ancient quarters which bear witness to the city's secular development, and particularly to the period of its apogee, under the empire of Timur, in the 15th century.


Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas (i iv)
The Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas, built to the design of the architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva, between 1940 and 1960, is an outstanding example of the Modern Movement in architecture. The university campus integrates the large number of buildings and functions into a clearly articulated ensemble, including masterpieces of modern architecture and visual arts, such as the Aula Magna with the "Clouds" of Alexander Calder, the Olympic Stadium, and the Covered Plaza.

One mixed site has been inscribed this year:

South Africa

uKhahlamba - Drakensberg Park (N iii iv C i iii)
The spectacular natural landscape of the Drakensberg Park contains many caves and rock-shelters with a wealth of paintings made by the San people over a period of 4,000 years. They depict animals and human beings, and represent the spiritual life of this people, who no longer live in their original homeland.

The following sites already on the List have been extended: the Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin (Armenia) the Potala Palace and the Jokhang Temple Monastery, Lhasa (China) the Classical Gardens of Suzhou (China) and the Plitvice National Park (Croatia). The Committee also recognised additional World Heritage values that justify the inscription on the List in 1994 of Ha Long Bay in Viet Nam.


THE history of Russia has been a series of expansions to the west, the south, and the east, towards the open sea. Each territory occupied was, sooner or later, absorbed into the Empire of which it became in every way an integral part. The fact that Russia was not separated from her colonial possessions by the sea made the process of absorption easier, and the line of demarcation between the mother-country and her colonies is therefore less definite than in the case of Britain or France. Moreover, the fact that the Empire has hitherto been governed despotically made the question of the forms of government to be adopted in the various provinces less important than it is in constitutionally governed States. The general aim of the ruling classes has been to assimilate as far as possible every part of the Empire, from Poland to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Sea to Mount Ararat. Yet as a matter of fact the conditions are very different, and while we have a central mass of Russian-speaking peoples, numbering more than half the entire population of the Empire and inhabiting a vast, monotonous

zone of plains, on the borders there are provinces as different from Russia proper and from each other as any in the dominions of England. Of all these border-lands, none exceeds in interest that region known as the Caucasus. Its giant mountains, its magnificent scenery, its rich and varied vegetation, its extraordinary collection of different races, speaking countless languages, and representing almost every branch of the human family, its strange history and the beautiful monuments of its art, make of it a wonderland of romance, exercising a fascination on all who visit it.

Caucasia is a broad isthmus between the Black Sea and the Caspian, traversed by a great chain of mountains rising to a height of 18,000 feet. North of the range is a region of interminable plains, known as the Northern Caucasus, or Ciscaucasia, merging imperceptibly into the steppes of the Don and the Volga. Southwards is Transcaucasia, a semi-tropical country intersected by many smaller ranges of mountains, of which the most important are the so-called Anti-Caucasus and the Armenian group. The Caucasus divides Europe from Asia as by a great barrier of ice and snow and rock at no other point are the two continents so sharply separated. Yet historically and ethnographically the separation is not so absolute as it appears. The barrier, like other mountain chains, has not proved an insuperable one, and Asiatics have poured across it into Europe from time immemorial, and Europeans have entered Asia by the same route at the same time some Western elements have come to the Caucasus by sea or overland through Asia Minor,

and Eastern peoples have penetrated from the north to the south. The two continents overlap, as it were, and we find Christian races of Indo-European stock south of the mountains, and Moslem Turanians in the northern steppes sedentary and civilized peoples in Asia, barbarian nomads in Europe. But geographically the character of the two regions is quite distinct the Northern Caucasus is a continuation of the great plains of Russia, while the fertile valleys of western Transcaucasia and the arid deserts of the eastern provinces are redolent of the Asiatic East. In the north the chief rivers are the Terek and the Kuban, while in Transcaucasia the principal streams flowing into the Black Sea are the Rion (the ancient Phasis) and the Ingur, and into the Caspian flows the Kura, with its tributary the Araxes. The watershed separating the tributaries of these two streams marks the division of Transcaucasia into a western and an eastern province.

The natural resources of the Caucasus are enormous, and hitherto little more than tapped under an orderly and progressive government it would be one of the richest countries in the world, and as it is it offers a striking contrast to the blighted lands beyond the Turkish frontier. Every kind of cereal and vineyards flourish on both sides of the range, and Transcaucasia—the Colchis of the ancients—produces, in addition, fruit of all sorts, tobacco, cotton, tea, and other tropical plants in abundance. Immense tracts of virgin forest cover a large part of Georgia, as well as the slopes of the Caucasus, ill-preserved and neglected, but still of immense value. Besides agricul-

tural wealth, the mountains teem with precious minerals coal exists in Georgia and in the Kuban territory, and the manganese mines of Chiatury, near Kutais, produce half the world's supply of that mineral the Elizavetpol mountains are rich in copper, and those of Armenia in salt. Most important of all are the vast oil-fields of Baku, producing 600,000,000 puds of naphtha per annum, and other smaller fields are beginning to be developed.

But the political disorders to which the country has been a prey since the earliest beginnings of history—wars, revolutions, and brigandage—have impeded its development. Even under the aegis of Russian rule, when the land should have developed at all events as much as Poland or Central Russia, the troubles continued and progress has been slow. Nor has the administration done all that it might have done to promote the welfare of the country. The few roads are ill-kept and allowed to fall into disrepair there are only two or three lines of railway, badly managed and insufficient the public services are disorganized public safety is a thing unknown. Trade has been hampered by vexatious fiscal regulations, and the influx of foreign capital is discouraged. Education has been neglected, and where the natives provided their own, actually hindered, so that the ignorance of large parts of the country is greater even than in Russia. In fact, in spite of certain elements of civilization, the Caucasus has remained for the most part a very barbarous land. Its mountainous nature and the savage character of many of the peoples inhabiting it are in part, no doubt, responsible for

this state of things but Russia's efforts to dominate rebellious nature and rebellious man have not proved adequate to the task.

More interesting than its geographical features and material resources are the peoples of the Caucasus. In no other region of its size in the world are there so many different races and languages. Macedonia contains seven or eight nationalities, but in comparison with the Caucasus, with its fifty or sixty, it is but a poorly-stocked ethnographical museum. Since the earliest times this country has been famous as a meeting-place of many races and many tongues. Strabo tells us that there were seventy different peoples in the Caucasus Pliny, with greater exaggeration, says that three hundred languages were spoken in the markets of Colchis. For over two thousand years the Caucasus has been in the pathway of numberless migrations of peoples but the nature of the land was such that each people that passed left some of its members behind, some fragment which survived unchanged in secluded valleys and rocky fastnesses. Once a community was settled here it was very difficult for a new invader to expel it totally some small part was sure to remain behind resisting all assaults, until the second invader in his turn was forced to defend himself against a third.

I shall not attempt to enter into the thorny path of Caucasian ethnography—one which has not really been properly explored even by those who are really competent, and many problems remain yet unsolved. But it is necessary to say a few words on the distribution

of the chief races in order to make certain aspects of the political situation clear. The question of the Caucasian races and their division may be regarded from several points of view. If we consider it purely in its scientific bearings, we must divide them into white races and yellow or Mongol races the white must then be subdivided into Indo-Europeans, Semites, and pure Caucasians, and the Mongolians into Turkish peoples and pure Mongols. This is, of course, only one method others may adopt a different though equally scientific system. But from a political point of view divisions of this kind are apt to be confusing, for we find Russians, Armenians, Kurds, Persians, and Tates bracketed together as Indo-Europeans Georgians, Lezghins, and Abkhazians united among the pure Caucasians and Turks and Tartars treated as a single family. From a political point of view Tartars and Tates should be bracketed together, for although of widely different racial origin, they are both Shiah Moslems and practically form one nationality. Also Russians and Armenians, although both labelled as Indo-European, are widely separated by political considerations. Moreover, certain isolated fragments of peoples, perhaps not more than a few thousand strong, may have an immense scientific im- portance, and yet politically be a negligible quantity. For instance, the Ossets, inhabiting the western part of the Central Caucasus, offer many interesting problems to the ethnographer and the philologist but they have never come to the fore in the recent political history of the country. The people of Daghestan, who are split up into several dozen different races and

countless tribes, many of them as yet unclassed and of unknown origin, although they played a great part in former times, and under Shamyl resisted the Russian advance with desperate valour, their name is seldom even mentioned in the accounts of recent events. Politically we may divide the Caucasian peoples into the following groups : Khartvels or Georgians, Armenians, Tartars, Russians, Eastern mountaineers, and Western mountaineers the mountaineers, however, have practically no political importance at the present time.

The Khartvel or Georgian group occupies the whole of Western Transcaucasia, spreading as far east as the Alazan valley and as far south as the Turkish frontier, but its chief centres are the valleys of the Rion and the Ingur. The Georgian population numbers about 1,800,000, and they are all Orthodox Christians, except the Adjars in the mountains near Batum, who were converted to Islam. They belong to the Aryan family, but form part of a group of peoples more or less autochthonous to the land, and having very little connection with other Aryan races. Their language, although Aryan, has peculiarities which distinguish it from all other tongues, even those of other autochthonous Caucasian races, to whom, however, it is probably allied in the course of time it has been modified by infiltration of Persian, Armenian, Turkish, Greek, and Arabic elements. The Georgians are subdivided into Georgians proper, or Khartvels (Khartlins), inhabiting the central part of the country Kakhetins, east of Tiflis Imeretins, round Kutais Mingrelians, between Kutais and the sea Gurians,

in the district of Ozurgety Pshavs, Khevsurs, and other highlanders, in the mountains north of Tiflis and along the Georgian road Svanets, in the mountains north of Kutais. Each of these branches has its own dialect, but of late years the various local patois have been tending to disappear and a single literary language has been universally adopted. They form the largest and most compact racial mass in the whole of Transcaucasia.

Eastern Transcaucasia is inhabited chiefly by Armenians and Tartars. The Armenians or Haiks, number 1,200,000 in Russian territory, but the greater part of this people is still in Turkey. They are apparently of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European group, and their language seems to have considerable affinity with Zend, but it contains important Semitic elements, and many Georgian, Turkish, and Persian words. The Armenians are found mostly in the Governments of Erivan, Tiflis, Elizavetpol, and Baku, but that of Erivan is the only one in which they are a majority. By religion they belong to the Gregorian Church.*

The Tartars are a Mongol people closely allied to the Ottoman Turks, and their language is a patois of Turkish. They originally came from Central Asia, and invaded the Caucasus from Azerbajan (North-Western Persia) they are, in fact, described as Azerbajan Tartars, to distinguish them from the Kazan and the Crimean Tartars. Their habitats are the governments of Baku, Elizavetpol, Erivan, and certain

* Further details concerning the Armenians and the Tartars will be given in Chapter VIII.

districts of that of Tiflis, and they number 1,200,000. They are divided into a number of tribes or clans to them are allied the 50,000 Nogai Tartars in the Kuban and Daghestan provinces, and 100,000 Kumiks. In the Government of Baku there are also some 180,000 Tates, who, although of Iranian Stock, and speaking a Persian dialect, are Shiah Mohammedans like the Tartars, and are gradually adopting Tartar ways and even the Tartar language. Here, as in other parts of the East, religion is a stronger tie than race or nationality, and practically all the Shiahs of the Eastern Caucasus are, for practical purposes, Tartars. On the other hand, the Sunni Mohammedans, whether Tartars, Turks, Lezghins, Kurds, or others, form a separate community, who, save in certain cases, have taken no part in the Armeno-Tartar feud.

Other Moslem peoples are the Turks and the Kurds, both of them Sunnis. The former number 30,000 in the province of Batum, where they are more or less assimilated to the Adjars (70,000), and 50,000, or 60,000 in the province of Kars. The Kurds are mostly nomad shepherds of the Governments of Erivan and Elizavetpol and the province of Kars.

Next we come to the highlanders. In the Western Caucasus and along the Black Sea coast are the remnants of two autochthonous peoples, of great interest to ethnographers, who once played a large rôle in these lands, viz., the Circassians, to whom are allied the Kabardins, and the Abkhazians. The Circassians resisted the Russian advance with

desperate valour, and when the country was finally subjugated the great majority preferred to emigrate into Turkish territory. At present there are only a few thousand Circassians left out of a gallant nation of half a million. The Abkhazians who dwell in the mountains behind Sukhum Kalé are reduced to about 60,000, and the Kabardins on the north-east slopes of the range are 190,000. The prevailing religion of these people is Islam. The Eastern mountaineers dwelling in Daghestan and part of the Terek province, are an extraordinary medley of several dozen different branches, mostly autochthonous, but many of them undetermined, and speaking numbers of different languages, whose connections with each other are not always established. The Chechens (280,000) are warlike high-landers living in the mountains south and east of Vladikavkaz. Then come the Lezghins, Andians, and Avars, the Dargo, the Kyurins, the Udins, and many others. There is one mountain in Daghestan on the slopes of which are seven villages each speaking a different language to communicate with each other they use the Avar tongue, which is a sort of lingua franca of the district. Besides the native dialects Turkish and Arabic are also spoken. The Eastern highlanders are nearly all Sunni Mohammedans, and were almost welded into a single nation under the leadership of Shamyl, who held out against Russia in a long series of wars. The story of the Russian campaigns of Daghestan and Circassia is among the most romantic episodes of Muscovite history. They are still warlike and brave,

but have remained quiet during the last thirty years.

Another highland people, who cannot, however, be classed as autochthonous, are the Ossets, occupying the mountains between the Georgian road and the Adai Khokh. Their language is Iranian, and, in fact, they call themselves Iron, and many of their customs are very similar to those of the primitive peoples of Western Europe, which gave rise to curious but untenable theories as to their relationship with the Germans. They number 120,000, spread over the governments of Tiflis and Kutais and the Terek province one half of them are nominal Christians, and the other half nominal Mohammedans, but both sections practise pagan rites.

Finally, we come to the Russians, who, although not an absolute majority, are the largest element of the population, and are, of course, the ruling race. They number about 3,000,000, but with the exception of some 150,000 they are all in the Northern Caucasus, in Transcaucasia they are merely soldiers, officials, small peasant colonies (chiefly sectarians) and a certain number of workmen at Baku, Tiflis, and Batum. In the Northern Caucasus the majority of them are in the Cossack colonies of the Terek and the Kuban. Other races are: Greeks (55,000), some of them descended from the ancient Greek colonies on the Black Sea, a few thousand German colonists, Jews, Poles, &c.

To sum up, we may divide the peoples of the Caucasus as follows :—

To attempt to write the history of the Caucasus would not only be very difficult, but hardly profitable. Until the Russian occupation the Caucasus had no unity. Geographically it is divided into two distinct parts by the great range. Ethnographically it is but a collection of miscellaneous samples. Historically it has always been split up between a number of different foreign States, and more or less independent principalities and tribes. Alexander the Great, the East Roman Empire, and the Arabs at various times laid claim to rule the whole country, but in practice they never actually did so. Russia is the first Power which has succeeded in uniting these scattered fragments. At the time of the Russian conquest Western Transcaucasia was divided into the kingdoms of Georgia, Imeretia, and Mingrelia, which had at an earlier period formed a single State, The Eastern provinces (Baku, Elizavetpol, and Erivan) were under Persian supremacy Batum and Kars belonged to Turkey, who also had a nominal suzerainty over the Circassians. The mountain ranges were divided among a number of practically independent clans. This state of things had existed in a more or less modified form for several centuries, and in the wildly chaotic conditions of the country frontiers were un-

certain and sovereign rights but vain things. The only part of the Caucasus which had a more or less consecutive national history was the kingdom of Georgia.

A Georgian or Iberian State had existed long before the Christian era, but very little is known of its history. The country received its first lessons in civilization from the Greek traders who established commercial colonies in Colchis, the fabled land of the Golden Fleece. In the III. century b.c., Alexander the Great conquered Iberia and established a Macedonian administration. But a national hero, Pharnabazes, led the people to revolt, expelled the Macedonian Governor, and founded a Georgian dynasty. Subsequently the rights of his successors were disputed by tile Armenian Arsakid dynasty, and in the IV. century King Mirian founded the Sasanid house. During his reign Georgia was converted to Christianity by St. Nina. The Greek Emperor sent a bishop and priests to Georgia and the king and people were baptized in 332. Christianity was not, however, firmly established for some time, and in the V. century there was a religious war between the Christians and the fire-worshippers supported by the Persians. King Vakhtang Gorgoslan (446-499) completed the conversion of Georgia and expelled the fire-worshippers in spite of frequent inroads by the Persians and the high-landers, Georgia now became a considerable Power in the Middle East. In 458 the first Georgian bishopric was founded, that of Mtzkhet, and in 542 the Emperor Justinian recognized the independence of the Iberian Church, whose primate was henceforth

styled Katholikos. In the VII. century the Arabs invaded Georgia, and the ancient kingdom was split up into several principalities. Kakhetia seceded in the east, Imeretia, Mingrelia, and Abkhazia in the west, so that the then reigning dynasty of the Bagratids only ruled the country round Tiflis, under Arab auspices, and Tiflis itself was held by the Arabs. Under David (1001) and Bagrat III. Georgia was reunited once more into an independent kingdom, but soon after it was invaded by the Seljuk Turks, who laid it waste.

David III. (1080), the Renovator, at last succeeded in expelling the Mohammedans and creating a new and greater Georgian kingdom, extending from the Black Sea to the Caspian, and from the Caucasus to Kars. He reorganized the country, suppressed brigandage and heresy, built churches, opened schools, and made Georgia a centre of culture and civilization. In 1184 the celebrated Queen Thamara came to the throne—a name still venerated as a glorious if half-legendary tradition wherever the Georgian tongue is spoken. Almost every church and every castle is attributed to her, and a whole host of legends has gathered about her personality. She does seem to have been a great woman, and to have raised her country to a high place among nations. She waged war successfully against both the Turks and the Greeks, and after the fall of the Byzantine Empire at the hands of the Crusaders she helped to form the Empire of Trebizond. But at her death in 1212 the edifice, laboriously raised, crumbled once more. Her incapable successors were unable to resist the

ever-recurring onslaughts of the Moslems from the south and the highlanders from the north. First Genghis Khan's Mongol hordes, then the Persians, then again in 1236, the Mongols raided Georgia and made themselves for a time masters of the country. For the next three hundred years it is a prey to invasion, civil war, and Mongol oppression. In 1387 and 1393 it suffered at the hands of Timur the Tartar, who desolated the land with fire and sword. The XV. and XVI. centuries are one long record of Turkish and Persian invasions and occupations, as a result of which several of the native princes became Moslems, and Oriental customs penetrated into the country. Massacre, bloodshed, treachery, and cruelty are the staple elements of Georgian history during this period, lit up at rare intervals by flashes of heroism and sublime patriotism. The Persians were now the real rulers of Georgia, but they usually delegated their authority to native kings of proven fidelity. Some of these honestly tried, to better the conditions of the people, and aspired to ultimate independence. One of them, Vakhtang VI (1675-1737), although outwardly professing Islam—to which fact he owed his nomination as King of Georgia by the Persians—managed to re-establish a measure of order in the land, to unite the scattered provinces, and to promote an intellectual revival. It was in his reign that relations with Russia were first established, for with the help of the Muscovite Tzars he hoped to shake himself free of Persia and obtain protection from his various dangerous neighbours. The Moslem Powers, by

their perpetual incursions and their savage oppression, threw the Christians of the Caucasus into the arms of Russia and led to their own eventual downfall. In 1722 Peter the Great concluded an alliance with Vakhtang, with a view to the expedition to Derbent and Baku. In the following year the Georgian king openly declared himself independent of Persia, and sent an army of 30,000 to assist the Russians. But to his surprise and dismay Peter concluded a separate peace treaty with Persia in 1724, acknowledging the latter's suzerainty over Georgia. Thus left to herself Georgia was overrun by hordes of Turks and Persians who came to wreak their vengeance on her for having helped their enemy. The highlanders profited by the enfeebled state of the country to pour down into the valleys and plunder the inhabitants. Revolts broke out, and Vakhtang was deposed and died in exile in 1737. The object of Russia was so to weaken Georgia that its absorption into the Empire should become inevitable, and this policy was consistently followed for nearly a century, and with ultimate success. Catherine II. instructed her agents and generals in the Caucasus “to do nothing likely to strengthen, Georgia.”

In 1736 Nadir Shah had succeeded to the Persian throne, and was friendly to the Georgians. He freed the country from the Turks, and eventually placed Irakli II. on the throne. Irakli (1744-1798) was one of the most remarkable men of his time, and excited the admiration of all Europe under him Georgia revived and prospered, and became for the last time

a powerful and independent State. Culture and civilization spread, order and unity were achieved, and the neighbouring Tartar khanates reduced to vassalage Imeretia, however, remained a separate kingdom under King Solomon. On the death of Nadir Shah Persia fell into a state of anarchy and civil war, and Irakli declared himself independent. But the Turkish danger became menacing once more, and the two Georgian missions to Joseph II. of Austria, asking for help against the Sultan, having failed, Irakli was persuaded to ally himself with Russia in 1769, as that Power was meditating a new Turkish campaign in which Austria promised to take part. War was declared, and the Russo-Georgian armies met the Turks near Akhaltzykh, but Irakli, like Vakhtang, was left in the lurch by his treacherous allies, who retired from the field of battle. By a superhuman effort he succeeded in defeating the Turks single-handed but they soon returned in greater force, and Persian hordes, under the ferocious Aga Mohammed Khan, also poured into the unhappy land. Again Georgia was fearfully devastated, and in 1795 the capital Tiflis was burnt and captured by the Persians. Irakli managed to recapture the city a short time afterwards and expel the Persians from the country, but he was weakened and broken, and in 1798 he died. His son and successor, George XIII., entered into negotiations with Persia, but the Tzar Paul outbid the Shah, and in 1799 a Russo-Georgian treaty was concluded and confirmed in the following year. By its provisions King George, the magnates, the clergy, and the people of Georgia declared that

they wished to become Russian subjects but the crown was to be vested in George and his heirs, who were to retain the chief authority in the country but without legislative powers the people were to enjoy immunity from taxation for twelve years the number of Russian troops in Georgia was not to exceed 6,000, and military service for the Georgians was to take the form of a national militia the Georgian Church was to be independent and Georgian was to remain the official and educational language. This is how the treaty was observed. On the death of George his son, Prince David, succeeded, and was waiting to be confirmed but in the spring of 1802 General Knorring entered Tiflis with a Russian army. On May 8th he summoned the nobles to hear the Tzar's manifesto read in the Sion Cathedral. Every one expected merely that the treaty of 1800 would be confirmed but the manifesto declared instead that the Russian administration was to be introduced “ for the good of the country,” and that an oath of allegiance was expected of the Georgian magnates. This they indignantly refused, and they were about to return to their homes when they found themselves surrounded by troops outside the church. A great uproar followed, and some rioting David was deposed, and a number of prominent Georgians were arrested. The Russians treated Georgia like a conquered country, the officials and officers beat and ill-used the natives, and outraged their women. The result was that risings broke out in various districts, the people refused to pay taxes, and David was approached by a deputation of Georgians and Armenians who

[caption] West Caucasian Types, Near Batum.

offered to organize a general revolution but he refused, from fear of the Russians, and was eventually sent to live in Russia. The state of the country, however, became so alarming that the Government decided on a more conciliatory policy. Prince Tsitsiani, a Georgian noble of high rank related to the Royal house, was appointed Governor-General, and commissioned to introduce an aristocratic constitution on a national basis. This was done, and for some years Georgia enjoyed a more or less native and moderately liberal government. Freed from the danger of Mohammedan and highland raids, the people developed, commerce prospered, and literature and culture revived. It seemed as though the country would become one of the most loyal and peaceful as well as one of the most progressive provinces of the Empire. But under Nicholas I. reaction set in, the censorship became more severe, and the Government tended to curtail the privileges of the people. This produced discontent, and led to the conspiracy of 1832, which was discovered before it had time to achieve anything, and numbers of Georgians of the best families were imprisoned or exiled. Gradually every vestige of constitutional government was suppressed, even the Church was placed under the control of the Russian Holy Synod and a Russian appointed Exarch, and the country reduced to the status of a conquered province once more. Universal military service was introduced, and although it was never applied in its full rigour throughout the Caucasus, Georgians were sent to serve in Russian regiments in Europe and Siberia, while Russian army corps were quartered in

Georgia. Russian became the official language, everything was done to expel the Georgian tongue from the schools, and an attempt made to Russify the country still further by settling Russian colonies in Transcaucasia. To-day the Caucasus forms a Viceroyalty divided into twelve provinces (seven gubernii, or governments, and five oblasti, or military territories) governed like any other part of the Russian Empire, with the same type of administration and the same bureaucratic machinery. But as in certain other frontier regions, the Governor-General or Viceroy has authority over the provincial governors, and even wider powers than those of ordinary Russian governors, and the zemstva, or elective provincial councils, have not been introduced, although there are elective municipal councils. A further difference is that the personnel of the bureaucracy is even worse than that of European Russia. According to a secret document of the police department, which was shown to me, during the period 1894— 1898 the following officials were convicted of robbery, peculation, murder, and other crimes, and punished: 19 district governors (Uyezdnye Nachalniki), 9 assistant governors, 83 pristavi (police commissioners), and two town chiefs of police! If these were actually punished one may be quite sure that a far larger number committed crimes which remained unpunished. Russia does not distinguish between the various levels of civilization, nor between racial and religious differences. In theory the Empire is one and indivisible, and every one has the same rights (or absence of rights) and the same duties, except in the case of the Poles and the Jews who are in

a position of exceptional disability, and of the Finns who, until a few years back, enjoyed a wide measure of autonomy which they have recently regained. The Russians have none of that feeling of racial superiority over their non-Russian subjects, even when the latter are of a different religion and colour, such as the English feel with regard to the natives of India. A Georgian, an Armenian, an Osset, even a Tartar or a Persian may aspire to the highest ranks in the army or the bureaucracy. Russian soldiers, officers, and officials have no repugnance to serving under a non-Russian chief, whether he be white, brown, or yellow, Christian or Mohammedan. Thus we find Georgian generals like Prince Chavchavadze and Prince Orbeliani, Armenian generals like Lazareff, Loris Melikoff, Argutinsky, and Tergukassoff, Tartar generals like Alikhanoff Avarsky, Georgian governors like Tsitsiani and Nakashidze, not to mention many officers and civil servants of lower rank. Nor is there even any objection to non-Russians receiving appointments among peoples of their own race. Socially, too, they are treated as equals, and Georgian, Tartar, and Armenian magnates are received in the highest circles of Russian society, and even intermarry with the Russian aristocracy, although intermarriage does not occur between Christians and Mohammedans. But in order to obtain these advantages, a native of the Caucasus must conform with Russian ideas and become more or less Russified, and almost forget his own nationality, not because the Russian is a chauvinist, but because he suspects the loyalty of every one who is not a Russian in sentiment if not by race.

Consequently, efforts are made to introduce Russian as the general language of the Caucasus, and to discourage non-Russian schools in every way. Nor do the Russian officials ever trouble to learn the native languages of the provinces they are sent to govern. With regard to religion, the Georgian Church has been incorporated in that of Russia the Armenian Church has remained independent, but has been placed under strict Government tutelage, and the Mussulman religion is also controlled by Government's right of nominating the higher clergy.

Yet after a century of Russian rule, with more or less strongly accentuated Russifying tendencies, in spite of the spread of the Russian tongue and of Russian ideas and customs, and the supremacy of Russian bureaucratic methods, the Caucasus, or at least Transcaucasia, has certainly not become Russian. The Georgians, the Armenians, the Tartars, and many of the minor nationalities, civilized or barbarous, Christian or Mohammedan, peaceful or warlike, have preserved their languages and their racial characteristics intact, and in many cases are imbued with strong nationalist feelings. There is no hatred of the Russians such as there is in Poland, or such as there was in Italy against Austria, but there is a grim resolution to preserve language, nationality, and religion against all attacks, and at all events among the more civilized elements, a determination to put an end once and for all to Muscovite autocracy and bureaucracy. If the Caucasus is to continue to form part of the Russian Empire—and for the present it is impossible to see how it can be anything else— it can only be governed on a basis of popular autonomy.

[caption] Gagry on the Black Sea. Hotel and Villa of the Prince of Oldenburg.

[caption] Ardiler on the Black Sea Coast.

Source: Villari, Luigi. Fire and Sword in the Caucasus by Luigi Villari author of “Russia under the Great Shadow”, “Giovanni Segantini,” etc. London, T. F. Unwin, 1906
Provided by: Aram Arkun, Krikor and Clara Zohrab Information Center
Scanned by: Karen Vrtanesyan
OCR: Karen Vrtanesyan

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs: The Richest Collection of Sepulchral Monuments of the Roman Provinces - History


"The Public are admitted to the British Museum on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, between the hours of 10 and 4, from the 7th September to the 1st of May and between the hours of 10 and 7, from the 7th May to the 1st of September, and daily during the weeks of Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas, except Saturdays.
"The Reading Room of the Museum is open every day, except of Sundays, on Ash-Wednesday, Good-Friday, Christmas-day, and on any fast or thanksgiving days, ordered by authority: except also between the 1st and 7th of January, the 1st and 7th of May, and the 1st and 7th of September, inclusive.
"The hours are from 9 till 7 during May, June, July, and August and from 9 till 4 during the rest of the year.
"Persons desirous of admission are to send their applications in writing, (specifying their christian and surnames, rank or profession, and places of abode), to the Principal Librarian, or, in his absence, to the Secretary, or, in his absence, to the senior Under Librarian, who will either immediately admit such persons, or lay their applications before the next meeting of the trustees. Every person applying is to produce a recommendation satisfactory to a trustee or an officer of the house. Applications defective in this respect will not be attended to.
"Permission will in general be granted for six months and at the expiration of this term fresh application is to be made for a renewal. The tickets given to readers are not transferable, and no person can be admitted without a ticket.
"Persons under 18 years of age are not admissible.
"Artists are admitted to study in the Galleries of Sculpture, between the hours of 9 and 4, every day, except Saturday.
"The Museum is closed from the 1st to the 7th of January, the 1st to the 7th of May, and the 1st to the 7th of September, inclusive, on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and Christmas Day, and also on any special fast or thanksgiving day, ordered by Authority.
"The Print Room is closed on Saturdays.
"The contents of the Medal and Print Rooms can be seen only be very few persons at a time, and by particular permission."

A very useful little book has been published, called, How to see the British Museum in Four Visits. Its success has induced the dauntless writer to undertake another guide --- one for the accomplishment of a far more difficult feat. It is to be entitled, How to find a Book in the Catalogue in Four Hours. The promise is bold, and we suspend our judgment. The feat has never yet been performed but this is the age of progress, even at the British Museum.

Over the entrance of the great reading- room of the British Museum is appropriately placed the bust of the late Mr. Panizzi - the Founder, as he may be called. The huge domed hall behind him, his work and monument, is one of the wonders of Europe, now reaching to a considerable number.
The entrance to this hall is beset with difficulties. At the gate of the Museum, on a day when the reading-room only is open, the policemen and warders challenge the visitor with a "Reader, sir?" Allowed to pass, he crosses the open space, ascends the steps, enters under the portico, and finds himself at the great hall, with more police and warders. Any signs of indecision, and he is sure to be challenged, "Reader?" If he crosses boldly, and makes for the glass-door, where there is another janitor with a list, he is stopped once more and made to show his passport, unless he have what is called at the theatres, "a face admission." Down the long passage he goes, gives up great-coat, stick, umbrella, parcels passes through glass swinging doors, past other detectives, and finds himself in the monstrous cathedral dedicated to learning, and, as some say, also to idleness.
It would be hard to give an idea of the first coup d'oeil for there is literally nothing like it. It has the look nearly of a cathedral, with all the comfortable, furnished air of a "snug" library. Colouring for the sides is furnished by rows of the books themselves which run round the walls to a height of some forty or fifty feet, and are reached by two light galleries.
[n the centre of the room is a round counter, within which sit the officials, and which communicates with the library outside by a long avenue shut in by glass screens. Outside this counter is another, which holds the enormous catalogue, reaching to some hundred volumes and from this second counter radiate the desks for the readers. Nothing more comfortable or convenient can be conceived. You have a choice in seats even: hard smooth mahogany or softly cushioned both gliding smoothly en castors. In the upright back of the desk is a little recess for ink and pens, steel and quill and on each side a leathern handle. One of these pulls out a reading-desk, which conies well forward, and swings in any direction, or at any height: the other forms a ledge on which books can be piled up and be out of the way. A blotting-pad, paper-knife, and convenient pegs under the table for putting away hats, &c., complete the conveniences. There are over five hundred of these, each having a number and letter. There are, besides, a number of what might be called "research'' tables - small, low, flat, and broad, which an antiquarian may have all to himself and the lid of which lifting up, he finds a convenient repository where lie can store away all his papers, notes, and books until he returns the next day. Some of the more retired of the long benches are reserved "for ladies only" but they do not seem very much to care for such seclusion.
Round the room, and within easy reach, is a sort of free library, where every one can help himself. This, as will be imagined, consists of books of general reference, and is very judiciously chosen. It comprises dictionaries of all languages, the best, newest encyclopaedias of every conceivable sort long lists of the old magazines, like the Gentleman's, Annual Register, &c. ambitious collections of universal science and knowledge, such as the Pantheon Litteraire, and Diderot's Encyclopaedia histories of towns and counties in profusion, and the best and most favourite text-books in the respective classes of law, theology, medicine, mathematics, physiology, &c. The only weak place is the class of English belles-lettres and biography, which is ordered after a very random and arbitrary fashion, comprising such poor books as Beattie's Life of Campbell, but not Moore's Life of Sheridan, having Twiss's Life of Eldon, and no Life of Sterne, and being without Mrs. Oliphant's remarkable Life of Irving. In fact, it would be hard to say on what principle the choice is made.
Having chosen a seat-and if you come late in the day you have to take a long, long walk seeking one - go to the catalogue for your book. And here we may pause to survey this wonderful catalogue, a library of folios in itself. Every volume is stoutly bound in solid blue calf, with its lower edges faced with zinc, to save wear and tear from the violent shoving in of the volumes to their places. On every page are pasted about a dozen neatly lithographed entries, and between the pages are guards, so as to allow fresh leaves to be put in, as the catalogue increases. As the guards are filled up the volume is taken away and rebound with fresh guards, so it becomes an illustration of the famous Cutler stocking, with this difference, that the stocking is gradually increasing in size. Nothing can be fuller than the arrangements for this catalogue, as it even refers you for a biographical notice of a well-known man to some of those little meagre accounts prefixed to collections of their poems, and to biographical notices and reviews. It also, to a great extent, helps the student to the real names of those who have written under assumed ones. This is the new catalogue, but there is an old one partly in print and partly in manuscript, and both must be consulted if you wish to make your search exhaustive. Periodical publications make a department in themselves under the letter P, filling some twenty folio volumes, to which there is an index, also in many folio volumes. London has nearly one folio to itself, Great Britain and France each several. Every entry is complete, title in full, date, place of publication, and a press mark, such as which 645 a 10 / 3 which is to be copied on a little form like the following:

Permission to use the reading-room will be withdrawn from any person who shall write, or make marks on any part of a printed book or manuscript belonging to the Museum.

Press Mark Heading and Title of the Work Required Place Date Size
10854. b. London 1862 Octvo.

Date, Feb 9, 1871 John Smith (Signature)

Please to restore each volume of the catalogue to its place as soon as done with.

On the other side are these directions:


1. Not to ask for more than one work on the same ticket.

2. To transcribe from the catalogues all the particulars necessary for the identification of the work wanted.

3. To write in a plain, clear hand, in order to avoid delay and mistakes.

4. To indicate, in the proper place on each ticket, the number of the seat occupied.

5. To bear in mind that no books will be left at the seat indicated on the ticket unless the reader who asks for them is there to receive them.

6. When any cause for complaint arises, to apply at once to the superintendent of the reading-room.

7. Before leaving the room, to return each book, or set of books, to an attendant, and obtain the corresponding ticket, the reader being responsible for the books so long as the ticket remains uncancelled.

N.B. Readers are not, under any circumstances, to take a book or manuscript out of the reading-room.

Having given in the ticket, the reader' may return to his place, certain of having to wait at least half an hour, and he may amuse himself watching the smooth running carts laden with volumes, which arrive every moment, and the attendants who are seen hurrying along through the glass. screen, each with his pile of books, with their labels fluttering. Considering that some of these have to walk three-quarters. of a mile along passages and up steep stairs. to fetch some remote book, and that often the forms are imperfectly filled, the delay is not surprising. A more intelligent, willing, and obliging class of men cannot be conceived, always ready to volunteer' assistance, even outside their special duty.. It is pheasant to see how they exert themselves for novices, or for certain old veterans, filling up their forms for them.
The readers are a very singular and. motley class. And here it is that some reform is wanting. A great deal of the time and trouble of the staff is taken up with supplying the wants of young boys and girls, and general idlers, who come to read novels and poetry, and take up the places of others who have real business. It cannot be supposed that the nation meant to pay for books and attendants, merely to wait on this useless class. A reform in the way of classification would be useful, the putting these drones in a department of their own, and with one attendant only to wait on them all. Every book ought to be procured within ten minutes, and by a system of speaking tubes and small lifts, the matter could be much simplified. The Museum would run fewer risks from the abstraction of books, by limiting the number of readers. There are many traditions in the Museum of these robbers, some of whom were always suspected, but to whom the matter never could be brought home: while there was a "gentleman" who was not suspected, but was at last discovered. A Museum book is fortunately very unmarketable, it is so stamped all over and if a volume had two hundred illustrations, every one would bear this mark. To all libraries come people with a mania for cutting out prints, and at this one, on a stand made purposely, are exhibited two maimed and defaced books, thirty or forty leaves torn out, with an inscription explaining how they were placed there as a warning, &c. This exhibition is a little undignified, and it seems quite purposeless. The evil-doers would only chuckle at it, while the well-conducted have no need of such reminders.
The habitues are a curious class. Some, as we have seen, are mere idlers, who come to read story-books in a comfortable room, but the true bookworm is found here in perfection. There is the shabby man, who has read himself blind over old Latin and French books, and who, at this moment, has his face bent to the table over a tiny duodecimo, the print being about an inch from his eye. Here is the mouldy old antiquary, very dirty, with metal spectacles, delving and grubbing in a very pit of books, with bleared eyes, wrinkled cheeks, and toothless gums, and yet he will work on till he tumbles into the grave. A familiar figure is that of the tall Don Quixote-looking man, who wears jack-boots and a black serge "soutane", or gown. He has a table to himself, covered with little vellum-bound books in all languages, and with notes and little manuscript books, all in the neatest penmanship. Here is a dapper man, with a sale catalogue and pencil, who is comparing books he is about to purchase with the copies in this national Museum. Here are men copying old music, sketching from the print books, tracing maps, handwriting, what not. But what strikes us especially is the diligent book manufacture going on, proofs being corrected, and manuscript set in order on every side. Not less characteristic are the ladies and here we shall find in perfection the strong-minded woman, with spectacles and curls, and a determined bearing. There are also many nice-looking girls, who go fluttering about fearlessly, fetching their own books. They are fond of coming and working in company with a husband or sweetheart, when a deal of whispering and comparing notes goes on. But considering that there are often five or six hundred people in the room, the behaviour of every one concerned is wonderful for propriety, and the room is for the most part as quiet and orderly as if it were a church.

Museum, British, Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury. Free. With the year 1879 this institution commenced a new era. For a century it was scarcely anything else than a storehouse of the treasures of the ancient world, an the curiosities of science, literature, and art but today its invaluable accumulations are being brought out and adapted to the uses of age, and the public are invited to profit by the many beautiful lessons they can silently but surely teach. The British Museum is now open every day (except during the first week in February, May, and October, when the rooms are cleaned), and the baby in arms no longer excluded. On Monday and Saturday all the galleries are thrown open on Tuesday and Thursday all except the natural history collections (then reserved for students) on Wednesday and Friday all except the antiquities on the upper floor and the rest of the department of Greek and Roman antiquities (set apart on those days for fine-art students). The hours of admission are from 10 (Saturday 12) all the year round, in January, February, November, December, till 4 March, April, September, October, till 5 and May to August till 6. On Monday and Saturday from May 8 till the middle of July till 8, and onwards till the end of August till 7. This variety in the hours of opening is occasioned by the duration of daylight, as the Museum is not artificially lighted: experiments have, however, been tried in the reading-room with the electric light, which will be continued. Admission to the reading-room (for study and copying), to the department of prints and drawings (for the same), to the sculpture galleries (to draw from statues and busts), to the coin and medal room (for study), and to the zoological, fossil, mineral, and botanical collections (for examination of specimens), is granted on application to the principal librarian, supported by the recommendation of a householder or someone of known position. To save trouble, the recommendation of a person whose name can be found in the ordinary directories should be sent. The British Museum was first opened on the 15th January, 1759. Its principal components were then the Museum of Sir Hans Sloane, of Chelsea (bought for 㿀,000), the Cottonian library (presented by Sir J. Cotton, 1700), and the Harleian manuscripts (acquired for 㾶,000). By Act of Parliament, passed in 1753, the institution was vested in trustees for the nation, the 㿊,000 required for the Sloane and Harley collections, with a further sum to fund for salaries and expenses, was raised by a lottery sanctioned by the same Act. These tributaries to the stream of knowledge were deposited in Montagu House, a mansion standing in its own grounds, which are now occupied by the present building. The Museum may be roughly described as a square formed of four wings, the central space covered by a separate structure --- the Reading-room. It is an imposing fabric of the Grecian Ionic order, designed by Sir Robert Smirke. Passing into the hall from the stately portico, you have on the right hand books and manuscripts: The GRENVILLE LIBRARY (rarest editions and finest examples of typography, with block books, valued at 㿢,000, bequeathed) the MANUSCRIPT DEPARTMENT (50,00 volumes, 45,000 charters and rolls, 7,000 seals, and 100 ancient papyri, including the Cotton, Harley, Lansdowne, Egerton, and additional collections) the MANUSCRIPT SALOON (autograph letters of eminent persons, illuminated manuscripts, rich bindings, and great seals) the KING'S LIBRARY (65,000 volumes, presented by George IV., remarkable productions of the printing-presses of Europe and Asia. In the same library an EXHIBITION OF DRAWINGS by Turner, Cox, Girtin, Cozens, Muller, and Canaletto, Henderson bequest, 1878 of engraved Portraits, historical Prints, and Playing-cards and of the choicest Medals in the national cabinet, with electrotypes of the finest ancient Coins. On the left you have the ROMAN GALLERY (Busts of Emperors, Roman antiquities found in England) three GRAECO-ROMAN GALLERY (sculptures of the Greek school, found chiefly in Italy, including the Townley, 㿀,000, Payne-Knight, valued with other antiquities at 㿨,000, bequeathed, Farnese, Cyrene, and Priene marbles, including the Venus from Ostia, the Discobolos, Giustiniani Apollo, Clytie, Muses, Mercury, Satyrs and in the basement, mosaics, tessellated pavements) the ARCHAIC GREEK ROOM (Harpy Tomb from Xanthus, seated figures from Branchidae, Etruscan sepulchral monument) the MAUSOLEUM ROOM (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, the colossal chariot-tomb erected to Mausolos by his sister-wife Artemisia, discovered by C. T. Newton) the ELGIN ROOM (grandest remains of Greek sculpture, the Parthenon marbles and procession-frieze, works of Pheidias, greatest of Greek sculptors purchased in 1816 of Lord Elgin for 㿏,000, now priceless also colossal Lion from Cnidus figured columns of the Temple of Diana of Ephesus, recovered by J. Turtle Wood, 1863-75) the HELLENIC ROOM (frieze, &c., of Temple of Apollo, erected at Phigalia by Iktinos excavated by C. R. Cockerell purchased for 㾿,000 the Diadumenos, athlete). ASSYRIAN GALLERIES: Sculptured slabs from Nineveh, now Kouyunjik, and Babylon, acquired during the Layard, Loftus, Geo. Smith Daily Telegraph, and Rassam explorations illustrating most completely the daily life, religion warfare, art, literature, and customs of the Assyrians and Babylonians, and bearing strong testimony to the accuracy of portions of Biblical history. The clusters of Assyrian ivories, bronzes, seals, and glass are unrivalled, and the cuneiform tablets are a library in themselves the Creation, Fall of Man, and Deluge tablets, Seals of Ilgi, B.C. 2050, Sennacherib, Darius, Assyrian accounts of Sennacherib's expedition against Hezekiah, the Siege of Lachish. In Basement: Lion hunts by Assurbanipal III., Sardanapalus, very finely wrought, also processions, dogs, &c. EGYPTIAN GALLERIES: Colossal statues of divinities and Pharaohs, "the Vocal Memnon" sarcophagi, graveyard tablets, obelisks, fresco paintings, hieroglyphics, the Rosetta stone, key to Egyptian language from Memphis, Abydos, Thebes, Karnak, Luxor dating from the time of Abraham to the Ptolemies, in beautiful state of preservation. On Staircase : Papyri, the pictured Ritual of the Dead. Most of the larger sculptures were surrendered to the English on the capitulation of Alexandria in 1801. Antiquities from Cyprus: small statues, busts, and miscellaneous ornaments. Before you in the hall is the new LYCIAN ROOM: Sculptures from Lycia, obtained by Sir C. Fellows, lofty tombs, friezes, Statues of Nereids, graceful and expressive of motion. On the floor above are the galleries containing the smaller objects of antiquity: Egyptian mummies, embalmed animals, coffins, sepulchral ornaments, representations of divinities in gold, silver, and porcelain furniture, ivories, bronzes, vases, dresses, weapons, and tools. The GLASS COLLECTIONS: Slade and Temple cabinets Egyptian, Phoenician, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Venetian, French, German, Dutch, and Spanish examples "Christian glass." WITT COLLECTION: illustrating the bath of the ancients Roman ware Cyprus pottery VASE ROOMS : Painted fictile vases, Hamilton, Canino, Payne, Knight, and other collections, from tombs, principally Etruscan and Greek illustrating by paintings the divine and heroic legends of the Greeks mural paintings, terra-cotta statuettes, drinking. cups, toys, &c. BRONZE ROOM: Greek, Etruscan and Roman bronzes, deities, heroes, mirrors, candelabra, lamps, vases head of Artemis (finest period of Greek art), Venus, Bacchus, Apollo, Hercules, seated philosopher, Meleager, Mercury. BRITISH AND MEDIEVAL ROOM: British antiquities anterior to the Roman-invasion, Roman antiquities found in Britain Anglo-Saxon objects, flint implements, pottery, cave. remains, weapons early Christian lamps, crosses, medieval carvings in ivory, bells, clockwork, enamels, pottery, and majolica. The Franks' Collection, descriptive of the Keramic art of the far East, presented to the nation by Mr. A. W. Franks, and valued at ٤,000, will be removed from the Bethnal Green Museum to this department when the natural history collections shall have been transferred to South Kensington. ETHNOGRAPHICAL ROOM: Idols, fetishes, dresses, ornaments, implements, and weapons of the savage races of the world, including the articles gathered by Captain Cook in the South Sea Islands. PREHISTORIC ROOM: The Christy Collection, bequeathed in 1866 will be shortly brought from 103, Victoria-street the room is now occupied by the Meyrick armour, carvings in ivory and wood, enamels, &c., presented in 1878 and the Henderson Collection, bequeathed in the same year, comprising oriental arms, metal work, Persian, Rhodian and Damascus pottery, majolica and glass. ORNAMENT AND GEM ROOM: Payne-Knight Strozzi (Blacas) (purchased in 1866 with other antiquities for 㿔,000), Castellani, and other collections the Portland Vase ancient gold, silver, and amber ornaments fine illustrations of the goldsmith's art among the Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans, intaglios and cameos unsurpassed for delicacy and beauty Byzantine, Teutonic Anglo-Saxon and later Ornaments Keltic gold breast-plate and rings. Beyond the new Lycian room is the READING ROOM: Tickets to view are given by the messenger in the hall circular structure original suggestion of Thomas Watts, improved by A. (Sir A.) Panizzi, carried out by Mr. Sidney Smirke dome 140 feet in diameter, height 106 feet 60,000 books in the three tiers inside space for 1,500,000 inside and out here in the basement are also the Map and Chart Departments, newspaper and music libraries. There are 1,300,000 volumes in the department of printed books at the present date. The Reading-room is open daily from nine November to February till four, March, September, and October till five, rest of year till six. Beyond, in the north wing, is the old library, in a part of which, once the Reading-room, T. Carlyle and Lord Macaulay worked it is now the cataloguing department of the assistants and copyists. It may be noted here that, under the new regulations, tickets for the reading-room are not renewed once on the register always a reader and there is no need to show the ticket if the reader is known to the doorkeeper. Persons under twenty-one are not admitted, except in very special cases indeed. The Department of PRINTS AND DRAWINGS: Entrance on staircase at the top of the Egyptian gallery the richest assemblage of etchings and engravings in Europe open to students every day in the week at ten closes at four all the year round except from the beginning of April to the end of July, when it is shut at five. Contains the collections of Sloane (including the Albrecht Dorer drawings), Payne-Knight, Cracherode, Cunningham, early Italian and German prints Lawrence drawings Hamilton, Townley, Moll, Sheepshanks, Rembrandt etchings, Harding, Morghen, Gell, Craven, Ed. Hawkins (caricatures), Slade, and Henderson. The Department of COINS AND MEDALS has the choicest and most extensive numismatic cabinets in the world, scientifically arranged and includes the Roberts, Payne-Knight, Marsden, Temple, De Salis, Wigan, Blacas, Woodhouse, and Bank of England cabinets. Lastly are the Natural History collections, which will be shortly placed in the elegant terra-cotta building in the Cromwell-road, near the South Kensington Museum, designed by Mr. Alfred Waterhouse. It will be sufficient to say that they occupy the remainder of the upper floor of the British Museum that the ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS comprise, in large part, the specimens brought together by Sir Hans Sloane, mammals, &c. Colonel Montagu, ornithology Hardwicke, Indian animals Hodgson, mammals and birds Yarrell, fishes Ross and Be1cher, antarctic specimens Stephens, entomology, 88,000 specimens Bowring, entomology Reeves, vertebrate animals from China Clark, coleoptera Hugh Cuming, shells, the largest collection ever formed, acquired in 1866 A. R. Wallace, birds Dr. Bowerbank, sponges and the specimens collected during the Transit of Venus Expedition (1875), and the recent Arctic exploration. The GEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT comprises fossil plants, fishes, reptiles (South African, &c.), saurians, wingless birds, gigantic eggs, sponges, corals, shells, insects, the mammoth, megatherium, pigmy elephant, human remains, principally formed from the collections of Dr. Solander, Hawkins, Mantell, Dr. Croizet, Bain, &c., and extensive purchases. The MINERAL DEPARTMENT includes a splendid collection of meteorites, aerolites, siderolites, portions of other planets, and aerial formations the Melbourne meteorite, three and a half tons the collections of Greville, Greg, Kokscharoff, &c. a well-arranged series of minerals, including diamonds, gold nuggets, crystals, and gems of every variety and degree of purity and splendour. In the BOTANICAL DEPARTMENT are flowerless plants, fungi, sea-weeds, lichens, mosses, ferns, flowering plants, grasses and sedges, palms, cycads, conifers, parasitical plants, fruits and stems, fossil plants, polished sections of woods, cones, &c., from the herbaria of Sir Hans Sloane, 1753, Sir Joseph Banks, 1827, Robert Brown, Rev. R. Blight, and others. Admission to study the herbarium and mounted specimens, daily ten till four, is granted on application to the principal librarian. The PORTRAITS, until lately hung in the Zoological Gallery, have been for the most part handed over to the National Portrait Gallery. NEAREST Railway Stations, Gower-st (Metrop.) and Temple (Dist.) Omnibus Routes, Oxford-st, Tottenham-court-road, and Euston-road. Cab Ranks, Bury-st and Southampton-row.

Not unworthy of its priceless possessions, and that is saying a great deal, is the structure of the British Museum at Bloomsbury. It was designed by Sir Robert Smirke, and was built on the site of Montague House in the years 1823-1852, but there have been considerable additions since then. The grand facade, which has two projecting wings and an imposing portico, is 370 feet in length. The impressive colonnade consists of Ionic columns of these, two rows of eight support the portico, over which may be seen figures by Westmacott, setting forth, on the right, the progress of the Human Race, and representing, on the left, the Drama, Poetry, Music, Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy. The front faces Great Russell Street, and our view is taken from the south-west portion of the court


A copy of every publication issued in this country has to be sent to the British Museum and the day must come when the present accommodation, large as it is, will be found insufficient. Our view shows the interior of the dome-roofed Reading Room. The circular bookcases surrounding the enclosure for officials contain the catalogues - some 2,000 volumes in all - and the readers' desks radiate from this centre. Excellent accommodation is afforded to readers: the desks are provided with a folding desk, a hinged shelf, blotting-paper, pens, ink, etc., and the room is illuminated by the electric light. The lower stage of the walls is lined with shelves containing some twenty thousand volumes, chiefly reference works, which may be used without filling up the forms provided for the books kept elsewhere.

City of Verona (2000)

The city of Verona was named as one of the UNESCO sites in Italy in 2000 for its cultural value. It is located in northern Italy and is a popular tourist attraction. Verona’s artistic heritage is what has earned the nod from UNESCO – there are several operas, shows and annual fairs held in the city of Verona. In addition, this is also home to an ancient Roman amphitheater which was also used for theatrical performances during the ancient times.

Pestilence and Politics: The Antonine Plague

Relief from an honorary monument to Marcus Aurelius, showing the emperor leading a sacrifice in front of the temple of Capitoline Jupiter , 176-80 AD, via Musei Capitolini, Rome

Despite Marcus’ successes in the Marcomannic Wars, all was not right in the Roman World. A pestilence had swept through the empire from around 165, likely brought into the empire by troops returning from campaigning in the East, perhaps appearing during the siege of Seleucia as the Romans waged war in Mesopotamia. The famous doctor, Galen , recorded symptoms of the disease, now known as the Antonine Plague, that included fever, diarrhea, and skin pustules modern scholars now tend to diagnose the plague as smallpox as a result. Cassius Dio, a contemporary of the plague, records that there were up to 2,000 deaths a day in Rome (although the historian was reporting on a later outburst of the plague). Modern historians estimate that the final death count may have been as high as 5 million, with Lucius Verus one of its potential victims!

The angel of death striking a door during the plague of Rome engraving by J. G. Levasseur after J. Delaunay , 19 th century, via the Wellcome Collection

Whilst the plague ripped through the Roman Empire, a rumor spread that Marcus himself had succumbed to a long-standing disease. Allegedly fearing for the security of the empire, Avidius Cassius – the governor of Egypt – declared himself emperor. A malicious historiographic trend claims that Avidius was tricked into this declaration by Faustina the Younger, wife of Marcus . Despite learning that he had been tricked by a rumor, Avidius remained committed to his course: he was now an attempted usurper. A reliable general and associate of the emperor, and a veteran of the Germanic campaigns, Marcus was devastated by the news of Avidius’ betrayal and entreated his friend to rethink his course of action.

Despite strong support in the eastern provinces, Avidius’ revolt soon lost clout. News of Marcus’ plan to invade Egypt to bring an end to the uprising saw supporters begin to panic. A centurion beheaded Avidius and sent the head to Marcus in an act of supplication. The correspondence of Avidius was burnt, on the order of Marcus, meaning that those who supported the usurper would be absolved of their crime under a less lenient emperor, many of these could have expected to be executed.

Role Models in the Roman World: Identity and Assimilation. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Supplementary Volume 7

The volume under review includes sixteen papers, all but one of which (that by Suzanne Dixon) was originally delivered at a conference, “Role Models: Identity and Assimilation in the Roman World and Early Modern Italy,” jointly held at the American Academy in Rome and the British School at Rome in 2003. The five-year gap between conference and proceedings has not had any serious detrimental impact on the quality of the contributions, however, and the Editors are to be commended for bringing together a wide breadth of scholarly perspectives. The result is a timely and thought-provoking exploration into the nature and scope of exemplarity in Roman culture.

In his programmatic introduction “Role models in the Roman world” (pp. 1-39), Bell provides a panoramic view of the scholarly terrain, as well as a full summary of the contents of the volume. He himself best explains the purpose of the collection: “The papers collected here seek out the exemplum across a broad range of genres, contexts, and periods and in this way probe the catholicity of its understanding within Roman culture. In so doing, this volume’s central aim is not to push for a new orthodoxy in the study of exemplarity but rather to lay claim to a wider evidentiary base and diversity of approach than scholars have traditionally attempted” (p. 2). In laying the conceptual foundation for the collection, Bell concentrates on the relationship between Merton’s theory of the “role model” and Roller’s four-part “model of exemplary discourse” (i.e., “actions, audiences, values and memory”). He continues with a brief survey of the vast body of evidence for exemplarity in Roman culture (including art, text, and ritual) and considers the role which the productive tension between past and present plays in this dynamic process. Consistent with the aims of the volume, Bell advocates a broader definition of exemplarity which incorporates more visual (and not just textual) evidence, and which also recognizes non-elite males, women, children, and slaves (and not just elite males) as participants in exemplary discourse. At the same time, Bell challenges the validity of the associated concept of “identity” as a useful hermeneutical construct, although he does acknowledge that not all of the contributors to the volume agree with that assessment. After this theoretical orientation, Bell explains how the chapters are arranged by theme and provides an ample summary for each: for the sake of both clarity and simplicity, I will explicitly structure the remainder of this review according to that thematic arrangement.

Tonio Hölscher, “The concept of roles and the malaise of ‘identity’: Ancient Rome and the modern world” (pp. 41-56)

Suzanne Dixon, “Gracious patrons and vulgar success stories in Roman public media” (pp. 57-68)

Chapters 1 and 2 address the concept of “role modeling” in general in Roman culture. In chapter 1, Hölscher explores the multiplicity of (often conflicting) roles which Roman emperors, among others, had to perform, and how that multiplicity of roles destabilizes the concept of identity. He begins with a comparison between the scenes of Trajan delivering an adlocutio on the column of Trajan and various images of former President George Bush delivering speeches during the buildup to the Iraq War. Hölscher notes that the adlocutio serves as one of a limited number of stock roles which the Roman emperor performs on his monuments, but that this stereotyped representation of the emperor also reflects a complex mediation between ideology and reality. He discerns corresponding ambivalences in the statuary types of Roman emperors, as well as in the availability of imperial roles for other elements of Roman society. In response to the notion that “roles are said to create and confirm ‘identity'” (p. 52), Hölscher rejects the idea outright. In chapter 2, Dixon shifts the focus from the emperor to the general public. In particular, she considers the examples, all from Roman Italy, of Septimia Stratonice of Ostia ( CIL 9.568 + 487 [see now Supplementa Italica n.s. 20 (2003): 71 and 88] and 14 suppl. 4698), Vergilius Eurysaces ( CIL 12.1203-1204 and 6.1958), Eumachia of Pompeii ( CIL 10.810-813), and Pliny the Younger, in his role as benefactor of his native Como ( CIL 5.5262, cf. Plin. ep. 1.8, 4.13, and 7.18). After a brief survey of these inscribed monuments, Dixon examines the relationship between iconography and epigraphy, but her analysis does not produce much beyond the platitude that “each of these records expresses something about the identity of the individual celebrated and of certain actions or aspects of their lives [ sic ]” (p. 66). 1

Roberta Stewart, “Who’s tricked: Models of slave behavior in Plautus’s Pseudolus” (pp. 69-96)

Charles Brian Rose, “Forging identity in the Roman Republic: Trojan ancestry and veristic portraiture” (pp. 97-131)

Efrossini Spentzou, “Eluding Romanitas : Heroes and antiheroes in Silius Italicus’s Roman history” (pp. 133-145)

Richard Alston, “History and memory in the construction of identity in early second-century Rome” (pp. 147-159)

Chapters 3-6 consider various aspects of exemplarity in the literature and art of the Republic and early Empire. In chapter 3, Stewart ventures a reading of the Pseudolus as a trickster tale in the historical context of the emergent slave society of Plautine Rome. She acknowledges the inherent difficulty of teasing out any reliable “historical” data from comedy, but nevertheless concludes (in a slight tautology) that “Plautine drama, as a comedy of manners, provides representations of slave behavior that reflect the slave’s agency because the slave acts and actions reflect conceptions of the individual as an agent” (p. 73, emphasis in the original). Stewart pursues this line of analysis in a close reading of the Pseudolus. 2 Thereafter, she fruitfully compares slave behavior in the Pseudolous with that in the Life of Aesop : the comparison between the slave society of Rome and those of the Caribbean and the American South, however, remains too vague and imprecise. Ultimately, Stewart concludes that “in Plautus’s staging the Roman trickster emerges as a role model and an anti-model” (p. 93). In chapter 4, Rose moves from literature to art in Republican Rome. In the rather shorter first section, he summarizes the arguments and conclusions of an earlier piece on changes in Roman attitudes toward the city’s purported Trojan ancestry. In particular, Rose identifies a shift from the positive significance of those eastern origins during the early centuries of the Republic to the more complicated significance of Troy during the subsequent centuries of the Republic and early Empire. In the rather longer second section, he turns from Trojan ancestry to veristic portraiture. In particular, Rose interestingly traces the development of the art form back to “changes in the commemoration of foreign triumphs and triumphatores” (p. 111) during the Middle Republic, as well as to the production of the imagines. Finally, Rose complements his discussion about veristic portraiture with a discussion about the accompanying statuary types.

In chapter 5, Spentzou moves from art back to literature, and from Republican on to Imperial Rome. In a concise reading of “heroes and antiheroes” in Silius Italicus’ Punica, she takes note of the many differences between Livy and Silius in their respective accounts of the Second Punic War, and argues that, “rather than simply being a disengaged philological pastime, [Silius’] erudite antagonism can have a sharp political point” (p. 133). For Spentzou, this “erudite antagonism” embraces such features of the epic as the destabilization of the apparent boundaries between Carthage and Rome, and between Hannibal and Scipio, as well as the conceptual distance between the single virum of Aeneid 1.1 and the many viros of Punica 1.5. She reads Hannibal as both “hero” and “antihero” in his capacity as an alter Aeneas from Saguntum to Rome, but overlooks perhaps the best evidence ( Pun. 17.149-290

Aen. 1.34-222) and adopts a highly dubious interpretation of the action during the single combat between Hannibal and Murrus ( Pun. 1.487-491). 3 In chapter 6, Alston brings the quartet of papers on Republican and Imperial literature and art to a close with a complementary study on “history and memory in the construction of identity in early second-century [A. D.] Rome.” He emphasizes the complex nature of the relationship between the concepts of “self” and “identity,” and, in the body of the paper, examines how Tacitus and Pliny adopt differing strategies in their respective attempts at coping with the traumatic impact of the transition from Republican past to Imperial present. First, Alston reflects on the potential implications of Tacitus’ use of the annalistic form and manipulation of closure, as well as the famous digression on historiography, followed by the account of the trial and death of Cremutius Cordus, in Annales 4.32-35. 4 Then, he (perhaps too) briefly considers the treatment of fama and exempla in selected passages from Pliny’s correspondence (9.2, 2.1, 9.19, 1.17, and 8.12). 5

Margaret Imber, “Life without father: Declamation and the construction of paternity in the Roman empire” (pp. 161-169)

Eve D’Ambra, “Daughters as Diana: Mythological models in Roman portraiture” (pp. 171-183)

Eric R. Varner, “Transcending gender: Assimilation, identity, and Roman Imperial portraits” (pp. 185-205)

Glenys Davies, “Portrait statues as models for gender roles in Roman society” (pp. 207-220)

Chapters 7-10 investigate the function of exemplarity in the formation, deformation, and even transcendence of gender roles. In chapter 7, Imber ponders the irony that, while “Roman society was patriarchal,” “at least among the male elite, Roman fathers frequently were absent from the daily lives of their sons” (p. 161). In this environment, she contends, young elite males learned how to negotiate the ins and outs of Roman society, and prepare themselves for their future roles as both patres and cives, through the practice of declamation. Imber accordingly stresses the importance of the all-encompassing patria potestas (e.g., in the exemplum of T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus and his son in Liv. 7.4-5), before turning to a discussion about the inculcation of often competing values through the practice of composing controversiae. Thereafter, she surveys the extant declamatory material for evidence for the treatment of fathers, and especially absent fathers, in the classroom (e.g., DMin 291, 300, and 306, as well as DMaj 18-19). In chapter 8, D’Ambra again shifts the focus from literature to art. In particular, she studies the various depictions of girls and young women as the goddess Diana in a group of Roman funerary portraits, statues, and reliefs, all dating from the first through the third centuries A.D. Moving beyond the standard dichotomy between idealized bodies and realistic heads, D’Ambra ventures a more holistic interpretation of these commemorative works with due attention to their cultural contexts. These works include, among others, the funerary altar of Aelia Procula (cf. CIL 6.10958), the altar of Aebutia Amerina, and the funerary altar of Aelia Tyche (cf. CIL 6.6826). D’Ambra associates this depiction of girls and young women as Diana (on the cusp of maturity, marriage, and, thus, motherhood) with the rites of passage celebrated in honor of Artemis at Brauron and in honor of Diana at Nemi (where the goddess appears to preside over rites for both boys and girls). 6

In chapter 9, Varner sustains the focus on art with a further piece on the interchangeability of gender identities, in Roman Imperial portraiture. First, he illustrates the assimilation of masculine and feminine features in a series of images in which the emperor is likened to a patron goddess (e.g., Augustus as Diana and Domitian as Minerva). Then, he turns to the conflation of gender characteristics in portrayals of the Imperial couple (e.g., Antony and Cleopatra, Antony and Octavia, and Augustus and Livia)—all explicitly intended “to encode and reinforce imperial notions of concordia” (p. 193). Finally, he moves on to the permeability of gender categories in the depiction of “feminine men and masculine women” (through, e.g., transvestism) in non-Imperial portraiture. Varner links this destabilization of gender (in Imperial portraiture) with contemporary debates about the nature and scope of the emperor’s masculinity. In chapter 10, Davies brings the quartet of papers on gender to a close with a study of the use of body language in the construction of femininity in Roman statuary. In particular, she focuses on four pieces, two male and two female, dating to the first and second centuries A.D., from the Munich Glyptothek (inv. nos. 540, 394, 427, and 377). While Davies acknowledges the derivate nature of the statue types themselves (e.g., the large and small Herculaneum women types, the Pudicitia type, and the Ceres type) as Roman adaptations of Greek models, she objects to the notion that the Roman “copies” offer little more than evidence for the Greek “originals.” Instead, she highlights the inherent tension in putting private values on public display. Like Varner, Davies also connects the negotiation between masculinity and femininity in the statuary with the negotiation between power and sex.

Sarah B. Pomeroy, “Spartan women among the Romans: Adapting models, forging identities” (pp. 221-234)

Shelley Hales, “Aphrodite and Dionysus: Greek role models for Roman homes?” (pp. 235-255)

Henner von Hesberg, “The image of the family on sepulchral monuments in the northwest provinces” (pp. 257-272)

Chapters 11-13 broaden the purview of the study in order to explore the dynamics of exemplarity not only in Rome and Roman Italy, but also elsewhere in the provinces. In chapter 11, Pomeroy applies postcolonial theory to the interactions between Roman and Spartan (as well as to those between Greek and Spartan) in Roman Sparta, just as she had applied the same theory to the interactions between Greek and Egyptian in Ptolemaic Egypt in Women in Hellenistic Egypt (1984). She begins with a brief survey of images of Spartan women in Imperial literature and notes the contrast between the focus on Helen in poetry and that on Spartan women in general in prose. Pomeroy locates Roman interest in Sparta in the shared values of motherhood, Stoicism, and patriotism. Beyond the literary evidence, she also considers the revival of Spartan identity under the Roman Empire and the consequent redefinition of that Spartan identity vis-à-vis Greek identity as part of the postcolonial experience (e.g., IG 5.1.540 = SEG 11.797). In chapter 12, Hales ranges far and wide across the imperium Romanum in her search for images of Aphrodite and Dionysus in domestic decoration. Taking her cue from Zanker 1998, she explains how “their [i.e., Aphrodite and Dionysus’] popularity demonstrates the continuation of a love of tryphe as a living ideology in Roman domestic life, providing a long-running theme that, through the iconography of the putto and the vine, even manages to reinvent itself for a Christian audience” (p. 235). In the body of the paper, Hales concentrates on the use of Dionysus’ mask and Aphrodite’s mirror in this environment (e.g., in the House of Lucretius Fronto at Pompeii, in the Theater Room at Ephesus, and in the House of the Tragic Actor at Sabratha, as well as the Venus mosaics in the Maison de l’Âne at Cuicul [mod. Djémila] and in the villa at Rudston). In Chapter 13, von Hesberg returns to funerary commemoration in an inquiry into “the image of the family on sepulchral monuments in the northwest provinces.” Following an initial comparison between the monument of L. Poblicius in Cologne ( c. A.D. 40) and the monument of the Secundini in Igel (near Treves) ( c. A.D. 220-230), he examines a variety of other materials as evidence for the influence of Roman culture on depictions of the family, especially women and children (e.g., the monument of Blussus and Menimane in Mainz). All of these materials attest to a relatively stable process: “As far as the images allow such interpretation, roles—as represented in Roman culture within the field of the family—are not impaired by the integration of the local population, at least not with regard to the roles of women and children in the first century A.D.” (p. 268).

Inge Lyse Hansen, “Muses as models: Learning and the complicity of authority” (pp. 273-285)

Janet Huskinson, “Degrees of differentiation: Role models on early Christian sarcophagi” (pp. 287-299)

John R. Clarke, “The philological, the folkloric, and the site-specific: Three models for decoding Classical visual representation” (pp. 301-316)

Chapters 14-16 bring the collection to a close with two papers on sarcophagi and a final paper on methodology. In chapter 14, Hansen studies sarcophagi from the period between the mid-third and early fourth century A.D. for their depictions of learned couples as Muses and philosophers. As she explains, her focus on the Muses complements that on the philosophers in Ewald 1999. First, Hansen considers the relationship between the Muse and the philosopher in these images, as well as their function as “role models” for the learned couple. Then, Hansen considers the role of auctoritas in the depiction of the learned couple: the connections, however, between the learned couple and the depictions of Ariadne and Dionysus, and of Virtus and the rider on the hunt, are tenuous at best. Furthermore, expressions of concepts such as pietas and concordia can be seen in funerary depictions not only of this period, but also of much earlier periods, too (e.g., the late 6th c. B.C. Sarcophagus of the Spouses in the Museo Nazionale Etrusco). In chapter 15, Huskinson sustains the focus on sarcophagi with a complementary study on the intermingling of secular and Biblical role models on early Christian sarcophagi. On the one hand, images of a Good Shepherd or an orans often replace images of a philosopher or a Muse on (especially, strigillated) sarcophagi. On the other hand, Biblical scenes, especially from Old Testament stories of God’s saving grace or from New Testament Gospel accounts of Christ’s miracles, also begin to appear on these funerary monuments. (Interestingly, however, whereas the images of a Good Shepherd or an orans could be given individual portrait features, the images of Biblical figures apparently could not.) Ultimately, Huskinson concludes that the combination of secular and Biblical images on these sarcophagi heralds the rise “of a distinct Christian material culture” (p. 298) during the third century.

In chapter 16, Clarke embarks on a broader inquiry into the various methodologies which scholars have applied in their research on exempla. In particular, he traces the history of three models (“the philological, the folkloric, and the site-specific”) and their utility in working towards a better understanding of the famous fresco in Pompeii (VII, 6, 34-35) of the goddess Victory crowning an ithyphallic ass as it mounts a lion from behind. First, the philological (or historical) model (1860-1950) interpreted the image as an allegory for Octavian’s (

lion) at the battle of Actium in light of an omen which Octavian had reportedly seen on the day of the battle (Suet. Aug. 96 and Plut. Ant. 65). Then, the folkloric (or structural) model (1950-1980) interpreted the image as a reversal of the natural world, as in a similar image of an ass mounting a lion in a mold from Magdalensberg. Finally, after pointing out the irremediable flaws in these two approaches, Clarke advocates the site-specific (or contextual) model (1980-present), according to which he examines the image in situ (e.g., in light of the inscriptional evidence, CIL 4.1626-1649). He argues that, together with the images of Mercury and Dionysus which flank it, the image under discussion marked the tavern as a gaming establishment. While Clarke certainly does arrive at an interesting and intriguing interpretation of the admittedly difficult and scanty evidence, he also somewhat oversimplifies things by framing the discussion of methodology according to an evolutionary pattern. Furthermore, rejecting even the partial utility of earlier approaches does not cohere with an avowed devotion to polysemy and to the idea that every viewer would have interpreted the images (at least slightly) differently.

The physical book itself is a work of art: a lavishly illustrated large-format volume with glossy pages, a sturdy spine, and an elegantly designed cover, graced with a side view of the Barberini togatus. The presence of ample cross-references alleviates the potential problems caused by the lack of any sort of index. Unfortunately, the text is marred by several typographical errors, in Greek, 7 Latin, 8 and other languages, 9 as well as a few misplaced references. 10 Altogether, this gathering of papers makes an important contribution to the study of exemplarity, especially in broadening the horizons of inquiry beyond elite male Roman literary culture.

1. D. also overlooks some essential bibliography, e.g., Han P. Mollenhauer, Das Grabmal des Eurysaces: Aus der Geschichte der Brotindustrie (Bad Godesberg, 1997) and John Henderson, Pliny’s statue: The letters, self-portraiture and classical art (Exeter, 2002).

2. S. might have strengthened this argument even further by discussing the etymology of the name. L&S explain “Pseudolus” as “= ψευδής (lying),” while the OLD clarifies this explanation by describing the form as a “hybrid from Gk. ψευδής “: perhaps the name derives by haplography from *Pseudodolus, with elements of both “falsehood” (cf. Greek ψευδής ) and “trickery” (Latin dolus)?

3. For Punica 17.149-290, see Joaquín Villalba Álvarez, “Ecos virgilianos en una tempestad épica de Silio Itálico ( Punica XVII, 236-290),” Humanitas(Coimbra) 56: 365-382. In Punica 1.487-491, S. adopts a reading first proposed by Duff in his Loeb but subsequently (and correctly) rejected by Spaltenstein in his commentary on the passage.

4. Here, however, A. misses John Moles, “Cry freedom: Tacitus Annals 4.32-35,” Histos 2 (1998), available online in the journal archives.

5. Here, however, A. misses Stanley E. Hoffer, The anxieties of Pliny the Younger (Atlanta, 1999). Also, see now Ilaria Marchesi, The art of Pliny’s letters: A poetics of allusion in the private correspondence (Cambridge and New York, 2008).

6. Unfortunately, D’A. overlooks C. M. C. Green, Roman religion and the cult of Diana at Aricia (Cambridge and New York, 2006)—although this work may have appeared too late for her to have been able to incorporate it into her analysis.

7. Read ἀθανατίζεται for αθανατιζεται (p. 10 n. 78), plasin for plavsiss and hupographen for upographen (p. 113), ἐγὼ for ἐγώ (p. 201), and thoinarmostriai for thoinomostriai (p. 231 n. 78).

8. Most of the dozen or so errors are relatively minor: the goddess mentioned on p. 187, however, is named Pax Augusta Claudiana, and not Pax Augustana Claudiana.

9. Most of these are also relatively minor (although more numerous): the most egregious are “Gn.” for “Cn.” (p. 114), “Verrus’s” for “Verres'” (p. 120, bis), “Dominianic” for “Domitianic” (p. 133), “Gaspar” for “Gestar” (p. 143), “Merimane’s” for “Menimane’s” (p. 267), “Anthony” for “Antony” and “Pharsalis” for “Pharsalus” (p. 303), and ” Fig. 4. Lion on top of ass” for ” Fig. 4. Ass on top of lion” (p. 306). The adjective “sartorial” is used incorrectly (p. 199), and I cannot find a noun “chiatus” (p. 133) in the OED.

10. Read “Hor. Carm. 2.12.17-21″ for “Hor. Carm. Saec. 2.12.17-21″ (p. 180) and “Stat. Theb. 8.436-37″ for “Stat. Theb. 8436-37″ (p. 225).

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