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Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Timeline

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Timeline



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Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Lesson Plan for Middle School: One of the Seven Wonders of the World

only destroyed once, but twice. All that remains is one single column on a swampy piece of land to remind those who visit of the wonder that once stood there.

Students will learn about the history of The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. In detail, students will create a timeline, learn how each Temple was destroyed, and learn about he rich history behind this lost Ancient Wonder.


Lesson Plan - Get It!

This ancient wonder was destroyed and rebuilt many times. Can you guess what it is &mdash or what is was?

The Temple of Artemis, also known as the Temple of Diana, was located in the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey.

It was built to honor the Greek goddess, Artemis &mdash the goddess of the hunt. Interestingly, the temple was destroyed and rebuilt several times in its original location. It is said that each time the temple was destroyed, it was rebuilt larger and more elaborate. The first temple was built circa 800 BC.

When the temple was first built, it was used as a place of worship and as a market place. The original structure was approximately 425 feet high and 225 feet wide, with marble columns. Many people of the time considered the temple to be exceptionally beautiful.

Take a look at the first image below. It shows an interpretation of what the temple may have looked like:

Although the temple no longer exists, there are still remnants of its existence. The next three images reveal the remaining columns of the temple.

Watch Interesting Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Facts, from Health Apta, to learn more interesting facts about the Temple of Artemis. Then discuss the questions following the video:

  • What do you think about the architectural design of the temple?
  • Why do you think the temple's designers used so many columns in its design?
  • Why do you think remnants of the temple's columns remain today?
  • Why do you think the ancient Greeks felt it necessary to build a temple to the goddess of the hunt?

After discussing the questions, move on to the Got It? section to compete a summary about the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.


Building history

In the course of the Austrian excavations since 1895, several phases of use of the sanctuary and construction phases of the Temple of Artemis have been proven. The area through which the coast ran, into which a river flowed during the later Artemision, was used as early as the Bronze Age . It is not clear whether it was already a place of worship in the Late Bronze Age - existing older layers could not be explored due to the low groundwater level. Remains of the wall from that time have not yet been discovered. From the 10th to the 7th century BC The area of ​​the low hill on which the Temple of Artemis was later built was expanded several times by terracing . Numerous vessel fragments were discovered in the embankments, the oldest from the late 11th century BC. From early Protogeometric pottery . In contrast to the ceramic finds from the Bronze Age, these are predominantly Greek ceramics. The often fresh broken edges reveal that the vessels were broken on site, which, like small vessels and animal statuettes made of clay, suggests ritual acts. The first simple places of worship, the cult image sheltering Naiskoi , originated in the Middle Geometric period. In the 8th century BC One built with the temples "A" and "B", z. Partly as wooden structures, the earliest peripheral temples in Asia Minor. Allegedly under the little known tyrant Pythagoras was in the 7th century BC. The archaic temple "C" was built, which was destroyed by flooding before completion.

The 6th century BC temple Chr.

The successor temple "D" was built around 550 BC. Started. Architects were Chersiphron of Knossos and his son Metagenes . The construction work on this temple, for which the Lydian king Kroisos also donated some columns, took an unusually long period of 120 years by ancient standards. The construction was extremely difficult as the building was erected on a swamp area. The discoloration of the earth, which could be observed during deep excavations, confirms the ancient reports that charcoal and leather coverings were used to secure the boggy subsoil when preparing the site for the temple construction. The architect Theodoros of Samos , who had already worked on the Rhoikos Temple in Samos, is said to have been involved in the foundation work. The striking similarities between the Temple of Artemis and the Heraion of Samos suggest that his involvement was not limited to the foundation work.

Vitruvius describes some of the new technical inventions by Chersiphron and his son that were used in the construction of the Temple of Artemis. The column shafts were not transported on ox carts as the roads from the quarries 8 miles away were soft. Instead, iron shafts were attached to the ends and the columns rolled, as well as the parts of the architrave, for which a wooden wheel was wrapped around the rectangular ends on both sides. A ramp made of sandbags was built to place the architrave blocks on the 18 m high columns. When the stone was in position on the ramp, the sand was drained from the bottom sacks and the stone was lowered. This did not quite work with one stone and, after Vitruvius, Chersiphron was already thinking of suicide. In a dream, Artemis calmed him down and the next morning the stone had moved into the correct final position due to its own weight.

The archaic temple “D”, built from a white-bluish marble of the area, rose on a 111.7 x 57.3 meter, only two-tiered substructure and combined a dipteral outer system with a hypäthral , i.e. open secos . 106 Ionic marble columns around 19 meters high surrounded the Sekos. The column bases of the Ephesian type stood on plinths about 2.30 meters wide . The final torus of the bases was not subject to any uniform design, but had, in addition to simple grooves, also gently overlapping rows of leaves. The design of the fluting also varied , the number of which could be 40 or 44, but also 48 and sometimes were separated by fine ridges of the same width, and sometimes had wide and narrow flutes alternating. An anthemion adorned the neck of the column. On the front and back, the columns were staggered two and three rows deep. The column shafts in the entrance area were decorated as columnae caelatae with reliefs above the bases. The probably first marble architrave of Greek architecture spanned from column to column and reached the largest span ever achieved by the Greeks. The central arch of the front weighed around 24 tons and had to be laid with centimeter precision on the almost 20 meter high columns. The approximately 86 centimeter high Sima showed mythical battles in flat relief, which strung together as an endless ribbon depictions of warriors, horses and chariots.

The back of the temple likely featured a closed adyton instead of an opisthodome . The two-meter-high Artemis statue in the open Sekos was made of vine wood and covered with gold and silver . The roof of the peristasis was made of cedar wood. Heraclitus consecrated his book on the logos in the temple on the altar of Artemis.

The temple fell on July 21, 356 BC. Victim to arson by Herostratus . He committed the deed out of a desire for recognition - he succeeded in his plan to become famous and thus immortal by burning down the wonder of the world. According to legend, on the night of the fire, Alexander the Great , who later also provided great financial support for the reconstruction of the temple, was born, which is why Artemis, who supervised its birth in Pella , could not protect her own sanctuary.

The temple of the 4th century BC Chr.

The late classical construction (Temple "E"), with which you started out soon, was Cheirokrates or Deinocrates designed as bauleitendem architects. The old temple was supposed to be faithfully restored, but some changes were made. On the rubble of the previous building, a larger area - already noted by Strabo - now 125.67 meters × 65.05 meters, 2.7 meters high - was created as the substructure of the new temple and the base with its now ten-step crepe was increased considerably. According to Pliny, the Temple of Artemis "E" had 127 columns with a height of around 18 meters and a stone roof. According to the report of Pliny , he is said to have had 36 columns decorated with reliefs, columnae caelatae . One of these reliefs is said to have created Skopas .

This temple also took a relatively long time to build, around a hundred years. Nonetheless, all of the components of this temple came to be where the predecessor had them. Column sat above column and wall sat above wall. The columns now consisted of 24 fluting, separated from one another by webs. Some of the columnae caelatae sat on large cubic plinths, also decorated with relief, without it being possible to determine their position on the building more precisely. Like its predecessor, the entablature lacks the frieze, which is unusual in Asia Minor . According to the identification of coin representations, huge gables with three doors used for cultic purposes must have adorned the fronts.

The construction work apparently began after 250 BC. BC, although some structural members were left in their raw form. Antipater of Sidon describes the temple in his epigrams about the seven wonders of the world:

“But when I finally saw
Artemis' temple, which rises into the clouds,
the other faded away. I said: Has Helios' eye
ever seen anything the same apart from high Olympus? "

Roman time

The temple came back into the focus of world history when around 46 BC. Chr. Arsinoe IV. , The younger sister of Cleopatra VII. , Came into exile in the temple. However, since she represented a potential threat to her sister's claim to power as a blood relative, she was declared on her initiative and on the orders of Marcus Antonius as early as 41 BC. Probably executed on the steps of the temple itself the high priest, who had dubbed her “Queen” on her arrival, was only spared upon appeals for clemency. Incidentally, the right of asylum was soon withdrawn from Augustus de jure.

When the apostle Paul came to Ephesus around the year 55 AD, he was said to have been so popular that many residents feared for the cult of Artemia and for their economic existence. The "revolt of Demetrios" - a silversmith and manufacturer of devotional articles - is described in the 19th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles ( Acts 19 : 21-40 EU ) and was reinterpreted from the opposite point of view by Goethe in the poem "Great is Diana of the Ephesians" .

During the reign of the Roman Emperor Gallienus , the magnificent building was destroyed by the Goths on a war campaign in AD 268 , and the remains were used as building material by the inhabitants . However, the Ephesians did not give up the Artemis cult until the 4th century. Today a re-erected column testifies to the former wonder of the world.


Contents

The Temple of Artemis was near the ancient city of Ephesus, about 50 km south from the modern port city of İzmir, in Turkey.

Most of the description of the Temple of Artemis comes from Pliny, though there are different accounts that give different sizes.

Pliny said the temple was 115 meters long and 55 meters wide. He said it was made almost completely of marble. It was about three times as big as the Parthenon by area. The Temple has 127 Ionic-styled columns. Each is 17.5 meters in height.

The Temple of Artemis had many fine artworks. Bronze sculptures by famous Greek sculptors Polyclitus, Pheidias, Cresilas, and Phradmon were in the temple. Paintings and gilded columns of gold and silver were also in it. The sculptors often competed at creating the best sculpture. Many of these sculptures were of Amazons, who are said to have founded the city of Ephesus.

Pliny said that Scopas, who also worked on the Mausoleum of Mausollos, worked carved reliefs into the temple's columns.

Athenagoras of Athens names Endoeus, a student of Daedalus, as the sculptor of the main statue of Artemis in Ephesus.

The Temple of Artemis was at a flourishing region. It was used as a religious institute. Merchants and travellers came to it from all over Asia Minor. The temple was influenced by many beliefs. It can be seen as a symbol of faith for many different peoples. The Ephesians worshiped Cybele. They joined many of their beliefs into the worship of Artemis. Artemisian Cybele became very different from the Roman goddess Diana. The cult of Artemis attracted thousands of worshipers from far-off lands. They all gathered at the site and worshipped her.


Contents

The cult of Orthia (Greek Ὀρθία) was common to the four villages originally constituting Sparta: Limnai, in which it is situated, Pitana, Kynosoura and Mesoa. Chronologically speaking, historians believe that it likely came after the cult to the city-goddess Athena Πολιοῦχος (Polioũkhos) "protectress of the city" or Χαλκίοικος / Khalkíoikos "of the bronze house". [3]

The sanctuary is located in Peloponnese, on the south bank of the Eurotas River, at ancient Sparta. This location was above the reach of all but the severest flooding which began near the start of and continued on into the 6th century BCE. After the flood caused extensive damage to the site, it was then lifted beyond the reach of the water using sand that formed a blanket-like cover, isolating artifacts existing beneath. The original sanctuary was believed to be built in ca. 700 B.C.E. [4] The oldest relics, pottery fragments from the late Greek Dark Ages, indicate that the cult has probably existed since the 10th century BCE, but not before (Rose in Dawkins 1929:399). [5]

A second temple was built around 570 BCE, perhaps during the joint reign of Leon of Sparta and Agasicles, when military successes provided funds, however, it was moved towards the north, built atop portions of the old temple and is now facing S/E. [4] The terrain was raised and consolidated, undoubtedly following erosion caused by the Eurotas. An altar and a temple of limestone, oriented the same way as the previous buildings, were built on a bed of river sand. The surrounding wall was also enlarged, and at this stage took on a rectangular form. The second temple was entirely rebuilt in the 2nd century BCE, during the Hellenistic age, except for the altar. The second temple was utilized only for a bit up until the 4th century when it was then thought to be forgotten about. Just before the site was abandoned in the 3rd century CE, the Romans built a theatre around the temple and altar then, introducing a new altar in order to welcome tourists to the diamastigosis. [4]

Cult elements Edit

Many kinds of celebrations were conducted at the temple, one of the original being the Procession of the Girls. It was thought that this celebration occurred when the temple opened at the very beginning. All of the details are not known as to what exactly occurred during this celebration, however, it was thought that the girls of Sparta brought gifts to offer Artemis while they sang songs to the Parthenos. Many inscriptions were found in relation to this celebration, ensuring the seriousness taken when worshipping the goddess. [4]

The Cult at Sparta were often found to use masks that imitated the appearance of various animals. This was because during a special feast named the Syracusan feast of Artemis, there could be a surrounding of creatures circling Artemis, it was of importance that one would be a female lion. [6] In connection with this, offerings at the temple usually including those of animals, at Sparta, the bear was seen as a significant symbol. It was suggested that Artemis Orthia and the bear were linked in ways that relate to mothering and the birthing of children. [7]

Because Artemis is related to the ideas of nature and nourishment, she is also thought to be fruitful. Many myths portray her as a figure that has a society of nymphs serving her as royalty along with satyrs that come from Dionysos, therefore, causing females at a young age to become very honourable towards the cult. [6]

Young females seen honouring the cult were considered to be celibate but performed their dancing in such a way that would be considered improper and very hyper sexualized. It was also noted that the statue representing Artemis for the cult was removed out of the sanctuary temporarily by the girls while their dance was performed. Men also gave praise to the Greek goddess, because of such, the ephebes could seen being beaten with objects such as whips at the altar of the temple in Sparta, diamastigosis. [6]

There were three types of games thought to be played in the sanctuary by young boys. The first and even the second game were thought to be a battle of singing or who could create the best music while the last game was thought to be a hunting game as it required 10 youth in order to play. One game was not known as the writing that explained it could not be properly deciphered at the time of discovery. [8] The cult addressed a xoanon (archaic wooden effigy) of malevolent reputation, for it was reputedly from Tauride, whence it was stolen by Orestes and Iphigenia, according to Euripides. Orientalizing carved ivory images found at the site show the winged goddess grasping an animal or bird in either hand in the manner of the Potnia Theron half-finished ivories from the site show that their facture was local (Rose in Dawkins 1929:400). [2]

Pausanias describes the subsequent origin of the diamastigosis (ritual flagellation):

I will give other evidence that the Orthia in Lacedaemon is the wooden image from the foreigners. Firstly, Astrabacus and Alopecus, sons of Irbus, son of Amphisthenes, son of Amphicles, son of Agis, when they found the image straightway became insane. Secondly, the Spartan Limnatians, the Cynosurians, and the people of Mesoa and Pitane, while sacrificing to Artemis, fell to quarrelling, which led also to bloodshed many were killed at the altar and the rest died of disease. Whereat an oracle was delivered to them, that they should stain the altar with human blood. He used to be sacrificed upon whomsoever the lot fell, but Lycurgus changed the custom to a scourging of the ephebos, and so in this way the altar is stained with human blood. By them stands the priestess, holding the wooden image. Now it is small and light, but if ever the scourgers spare the lash because of a lad's beauty or high rank, then at once the priestess finds the image grow so heavy that she can hardly carry it. She lays the blame on the scourgers, and says that it is their fault that she is being weighed down. So the image ever since the sacrifices in the Tauric land keeps its fondness for human blood. They call it not only Orthia, but also Lygodesma (Λυγοδέσμα - Willow-bound), because it was found in a thicket of willows, and the encircling willow made the image stand upright." (Description of Greece III, 16, 9–11)

According to Plutarch, writing in Life of Aristides (17, 8), the ceremony is a reenactment memorializing an episode in the Greco-Persian Wars. [9]

In addition to the flagellation of the diamastigosis, the cult entailed individual dances by young men and dances by choruses of girls. For the young men, the prize is a sickle, which implies an agricultural ritual. [9]

The presence of ex-votos (votive offerings) attests to the popularity of the cult: clay masks representing old women or hoplites as well as lead and terracotta figures showing men and women playing the flute, lyre, or cymbals, or mounting a horse. [9]

The archaic winged Artemis, represented in many ex-votos from the 8th century to the later sixth, lingered longest here as Artemis Orthia. The doll-like figures of the goddess Artemis are consistently exhibited wearing a set of wings rather than placing an animal in her hands or by her side. Many differences can be observed from one figurine to the next, with the most important being in how the wings are designed as well as the "polos", however, neither holds any relevance. The body of the figurine slowly declined in detail over time, specifically in the structure of the wings, followed by a disappearance of the head, stick-like feet and a new triangle-shaped frame. Some of the figures that were created around 600 B.C. were sometimes found to have messages devoted to Artemis Orthia in-scripted in the piece being offered. [10]

Diamastigosis Edit

The cult of Orthia gave rise to διαμαστίγωσις / diamastigosis (from διαμαστιγῶ / diamastigô, "to whip harshly"), where the éphēboi were flogged, as described by Plutarch, Xenophon, Pausanias, and Plato. Cheeses were piled on the altar and guarded by adults with whips. The young men would attempt to get them, braving the whips. This was done as a way to prepare boys at a young age for the life they will face as an adult and as a soldier. It was deemed as a rite of passage. [11]

During the Roman period, according to Cicero, the ritual became a blood spectacle, sometimes to the death, with spectators from all over the empire. An amphitheatre had to be built in the 3rd century CE to accommodate the tourists. Libanios indicates that the spectacle was attracting the curious as late as the 4th century CE. [12]

Votive offerings found in the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia were most often small but presented in large abundances. During the Archaic timeline, these offerings came in many variations and forms, leading to the assumption that the items were not specifically chosen as something that would pertain to or be associated with the god/goddess being praised. Instead, the offerings were thought to be selected from a more personal standpoint rather than something more representative of the honoured one. The idea of generosity was more important than the item itself that was being given and the connection it may of had to the god/goddess. [13]

Sanctuaries located in Laconia were often found to make offerings that were made from lead and formed into many shapes, the most common being the shape of a wreath. Many of these wreaths could often be found linked together by the left over lead still connected to the used equipment. [13] Lead offerings make-up over 100,000 of the lead offerings (now stationed in the Liverpool collections) that were discovered during professional digs at the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia. The most popular figurines discovered in the Sanctuary consisted of warriors, female characters, Olympian deities, musicians and dancers. In relation to the representation of animals, deer were commonly found to be offered and were recognized as a replacement votive that directly related to hunting and preying. [14]

Tiny sized vases, another type of votive offering, first made an appearance in The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia at the very start of the Archaic timeline. [15] Many of the tiny vases that were found were hand crafted while others were created using a wheel and had handles attached to the side. Most often, the tiny vases were not glossed over, but the occasional time they could be found glossed over in black. [14]

Offerings made of terracotta were also found to be used in the sanctuary and were usually self-crafted or moulded into various shapes and sizes. One of the most unique terracotta votives discovered in the Sanctuary of Artemis at Orthia were masks that were seemingly created to mimic the human appearance. These mask votives were thought to perfectly fit the face structure of a human, however, some masks that were discovered appeared to be smaller in size. [14]

The site was brought to light by the British School of Archaeology during their digs in Laconia, 1906-10 after doll like figures and other tiny items were discovered in the ground around the river, under the site. [8] At the time, the unexcavated site appeared to consist only of a ruined Roman theatre, largely pillaged after the foundation of modern Sparta in 1834, and about to collapse into the river. The archaeologists, under the leadership of R. M. Dawkins, quickly found evidence of Greek occupation. Dawkins writes, "The Roman theatre was easy to protect. a large quantity of ancient objects which by the light they shed on primitive Sparta, have given this dig capital significance." A long, continuous sequence of archaeological strata was revealed. Two distinct areas were marked and used to excavate the site entirely, they were labeled as trench A and trench B. Trench A covered the southern area of the sanctuary, running through the amphitheatre, trench B was marked only 10 meters from trench A still on the south, covering all parts of the infrastructure. [8]

Trench A delivered many artifacts, likely thought to be items sacrificed to the goddess, deep within the soil below the amphitheatre. The most incredible discovery made from trench A was the abundance of masks, believed to be related to the cult. [8] Trench B was dug too far away from the main site, based on the minimal findings within. [8] Artifacts found within the trenches included ceramics, geometrically styled vessels, doll like figures, sculptures and more. [8]

A sign of human life at its earliest is noted within the darkest of dirt filled with many artifacts that lie directly beneath the altar of the temple. The piles of artifacts could be found nowhere else at the site in such abundances other than the spot in which it was believed the goddess was being worshipped. The remnants found, including bones, were thought to be related to the cult and were discovered to be the remains of animals that were offered by fire to Orthia. [8]

As well as the British Museum, [16] a significant group of offerings were placed in the World Museum of Liverpool, United Kingdom, and are said to exhibit pieces that come from all time periods that the temple was utilized (the 8th century BC to the 3rd century AD). Although there is information to suggest that the sanctuary was utilized long after the 8th century, most of the discovered votives were buried into the ground far before the mid 7th century. The votives can be dated back late in the 5th century BC while the largest amount was found near the end of the 6th century BC. [14]


When was the temple of Artemis at Ephesus destroyed?

“Respa, Veduc and Thuruar, leaders of the Goths, took ship and sailed across the strait of the Hellespont to Asia. There they laid waste many populous cities and set fire to the renowned temple of Diana at Ephesus, which, as we said before, the Amazons built.”

What remained of the temple according to this article

. was quarried by the local inhabitants for its valuable marble and very little is left today. Bits of it have been found in local buildings and Justinian took much of the statuary that survived to his time back to Constantinople.

But according to Cyril of Alexandria in the 5th century, St John Chrysostom was labelled as the "over-thrower of the temple of Diana". Suggesting that he was responsible for the temple's destruction. A similar mention is also given by Proclus of Constantinople who says "In Ephesus, he despoiled the art of Midas". This may allude to the temple of Artemis.


Rediscovery of the temple

The site of the temple today.

After six years of searching, the site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition led by John Turtle Wood and sponsored by the British Museum. These excavations continued until 1874. ⎨] A few further fragments of sculpture were found during the 1904–1906 excavations directed by David George Hogarth. The recovered sculptured fragments of the 4th-century rebuilding and a few from the earlier temple, which had been used in the rubble fill for the rebuilding, were assembled and displayed in the "Ephesus Room" of the British Museum. ⎩]

Today the site of the temple, which lies just outside Selçuk, is marked by a single column constructed of dissociated fragments discovered on the site.


The Temple of Artemis at Epheusus

The Temple of Artemis was built around 300 BC in the ancient city of Ephesus. The temple was built to honor the Goddess Artemis, one of the three maiden goddesses of Olympus. The temple has been described as being more marvelous then the other 6 Wonders. Also, Artemis's temple was entirely made out of marbel.

The first temple was destroyed around 356 BC. Some scientists say it was destroyed due to water, but others say war was the culprit. Reconstruction started around 550 BC. It took 10 years to rebuild the second temple. The temple was four times larger then the previous one. It's been said that an arsonist named Herostratus set fire to Artemis's second temple. The third temple was way bigger and entirely constructed out of marble. This temple lasted about 600 years. When it was destroyed by the Goths, it was never rebuilt.

Fun Facts About Artemis*Artemis is goddess of the Hunt, the moon, and the natural environment*She dislikes men*Artemis's father is Zeus, god of the sky her mother is Leto*The goddess was born on the island of Delos (made by Poseidon)*Artemis's twin brother is Apollo, the god of music, archers, healing, truth, and the sun


Fictional History

Early History

Around 550 BC, a great temple dedicated to the Greek Goddess Artemis was completed.

After Alexander the Great oversaw the disassembly of the Golden Capstone, he arranged for each of the Capstone's component Pieces to be hidden by priests of the Cult of Amun Ra within the constructs that would become known as the seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The already-existent Temple of Artemis was chosen as one of the hiding places, and soon the Capstone's fifth uppermost Piece was hidden within.

After a short cycle where the temple was destroyed and rebuilt, the Temple of Artemis was eventually left destroyed, with few fragments remaining of the sacred site.

Meanwhile, the Temple's Capstone Piece was ultimately moved to a new location by the Cult of Amun Ra, a cult that would soon end up becoming known as the Catholic Church. As a result, the Artemis Piece was eventually hidden in their highest temple, St. Peter's Basilica. When the Callimachus text was written, it simply noted that the Capstone Piece was revered in the Cult of Amun Ra's most sacred place.

Seven Ancient Wonders

When the Coalition of Minnows team had Lily translate the Callimachus text, it initially appeared to most of them that the clue offered nothing regarding the location of the Artemis Piece. However, Wizard was aware of what had become of the Cult of Amun Ra, and so deduced what had happened to the Capstone Piece.


Watch the video: The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus - 7 Wonder of the Ancient World - See U in History (August 2022).