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Strategy AM-308 - History

Strategy AM-308 - History



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Strategy
(AM-308: dp. 850, 1. 184'6; b. 33'; dr. 9'9; s. 14.8
k.; cpl. 104; a. 1 3", 4 40mm.; cl. Admirable)

Strategy (AM-308) was laid down on 4 October 1943 by Associated Shipbuilders, Seattle, Wash.; launched on 28 March 1944, sponsored by Mrs. J. E. Kelley; and commissioned on 22 September 1944, Lt. V. A. Brown, USNR, in command.

Strategy sailed on 20 October for San Pedro, Calif. and held her shakedown in Los Angeles Harbor. After sound training at San Diego, she returned to San Pedro. On 6 December, she got underway for Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 14 December. She was attached to Mine Division 36 and began rehearsals at Lahaina Roads, Maui, for the invasion of Iwo Jima.

Strategy sortied with Task Group 51, LST Flotilla One, in the screen of Tractor Group Able, for Ulithi on 22 January 1945. The group remained there from 3 to 5 February and then steamed to the Mariana Islands where final staging for the Iwo Jima operation was begun. She was detached from the screen and, with her division, sailed for Iwo Jima on the 13th. The

mine division arrived off that island three days later and began sweeping mines for the landings which began on the 19th. The ship remained off Iwo Jima until 28 February when she sailed to Saipan. Strategy arrived on 5 March and, two days later, steamed to Ulithi to rejoin her division.

Strategy reached Ulithi on 8 March, rejoined her unit; and, on 19 March, was underway for the Ryukyu Islands. There, the division began sweeping mines on 25 March to clear the way for Army landings the next day. The minesweeper then helped clear the approaches to Okinawa for the impending invasion of 1 April. One of the war's heaviest attacks by Japanese suicide planes occurred on 6 April. One plane made a glide approach on a nearby merchant ship, and the minesweeper opened fire with all of its guns. A wing tank was hit, and the plane burst into flames and fell short of its target. Another followed within two minutes, and the guns from Strategy soon had it blazing but it banked and crashed into Logan Victory. The sweeper closed the ammunition-laden merchantman and rescued 48 survivors. Strategy operated in the Okinawa area until 5 May when she departed for Ulithi.

The ship put in at Ulithi on 9 May and refitted there until the 20th when she and other ships of her division escorted a resupply convoy back to Okinawa arriving a week later. Strategy operated from Kerama Retto until 31 July. In June, she helped clear area "Zebra" in the East China Sea of an antisubmarine minefield. She then aided in clearing another area of about 7,500 square miles northwest of Okinawa, almost to Kyushu. The operation took more than three weeks after which the ship returned to Buckner Bay for logistics. On 6 August, she sailed for Leyte for an availability period.

Strategy was at Leyte when hostilities with Japan ceased. The ship sailed for Japan on 28 August. At Kii Suido, Wakayama, Honshu, she swept mines for the occupation forces until 5 October. The ship then moved to Nagoya on 7 October and remained in that area until the 19th when she went to Sasebo. She rejoined Mine Squadron 36 in sweeping known minefields from Kyushu to Korea until early December Strategy sailed from Japan on 12 December 1945, en route to the California coast, via Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor.

Strategy reached San Diego on 12 January 1946 and was routed onward to the east coast for disposition. She arrived at Galveston, Tex., on 10 February, for a pre-inactivation overhaul. The minesweeper then moved to Orange, Tex., on 10 May 1946 and, four days later, was decommissioned and assigned to the 16th Fleet. Strategy was redesignated MSF-308 on 7 February 1955 while in reserve. Strategy was struck from the Navy list on 1 October 1967.

Strategy received four battle stars for World War II service.


270 vs 308: Which One Should You Hunt With?

I think the majority of hunters and shooters would agree that the .270 Winchester and .308 Winchester are outstanding hunting cartridges. Indeed, they’re both consistently among the most popular centerfire rifle cartridges used in the United States each year for good reason.

While each cartridge offers certain benefits to hunters, there is also a pretty big overlap in their capabilities. For those reasons, understanding their true strengths and weaknesses can be pretty confusing at times. The fact that the .270 and .308 each have very devoted fan clubs can also make it difficult to navigate the debate.

Don’t get discouraged though: in today’s blog post, I’m going to discuss the pros and cons of the 270 vs 308 so you can make an informed decision on which one is best for you.

Before we get started, I have an administrative note:

Some of the links below are affiliate links. This means I will earn a small commission (at no extra cost to you) if you make a purchase. This helps support the blog and allows me to continue to create free content that’s useful to hunters like yourself. Thanks for your support.

270 vs 308: History

Like many other cartridges developed in the United States, the story of the .270 and .308 Winchester begins with the .30-06 Springfield.

The US Army began the search for a new rifle and cartridge after receiving a deadly demonstration of the capabilities of the revolutionary new Mauser rifle and 7mm Mauser cartridge in the hands of Spanish troops in Cuba during 1898. Those efforts bore fruit a few years later with the bolt action 1903 Springfield rifle chambered in the new .30-06 Springfield cartridge.

Using smokeless powder and a 150gr pointed bullet fired at 2,700fps, the .30-06 Springfield was a gigantic improvement over other popular American cartridges used during that era like the .30-30 Winchester and the .45-70 Government.

Not surprisingly, the .30-06 Springfield was an almost instant success in the civilian market.

While many were satisfied with the .30-06 from the start, wildcatters also quickly started modifying the cartridge for more specialized tasks. Some gun designers necked up the .30-06 to develop bigger cartridges like the .35 Whelen and .400 Whelen.

However, the folks at Winchester went the opposite route and necked down the .30-06 (specifically the old .30-03 case, which the .30-06 is descended from) to use .277″ instead of .308″ bullets. They formally released the resulting .270 Winchester cartridge in 1925 with the Winchester Model 54 rifle.

The original .270 Winchester load shot a 130 grain bullet at a velocity of 3,140 feet per second (2,846 ft-lbs of energy).

If you’d like to see how the .270 Winchester compares to its parent case in the .30-06, read the article below:

While the .270 had a very high muzzle velocity compared to other popular cartridges of the day, it was not an instant commercial success. This was due to a number of reasons, one of which was the fact that the .270 Winchester fired unusual size bullets. Instead of .284″ bullets like the 7mm Mauser (and more recently developed cartridges like the 7mm-08, .280 Remington, .280 Ackley Improved, and 7mm Remington Magnum), the .270 Winchester used .277″ bullets which undoubtedly hampered adoption of the cartridge to a certain degree.

It’s unclear exactly why Winchester opted for .277″ instead of the much more popular .284″ bullets. Regardless of their reasons though, the design team at Winchester went with that bullet diameter and the rest is history. Interestingly enough, while the .270 Winchester eventually became a gigantic commercial success for the company, aside from the .270 Winchester Short Magnum (270 WSM), the .270 Weatherby Magnum, and the 6.8 Remington SPC, virtually no other mass produced cartridges use .277″ bullets.

Helped along by Jack O’Connor and the famous articles he wrote for Outdoor Life about the .270 over the years, the cartridge gradually caught on with the hunting community. Though some were reluctant to adopt the cartridge, many American hunters eventually came to appreciate the flat shooting characteristics of the round as well as the fact that it was so effective on thin skinned game. Within a few decades, the .270 Winchester was firmly entrenched as one of the most popular hunting cartridges used in the United States.

While the .30-06 performed very well during both world wars, the US Military again recognized the need for a new rifle and cartridge after World War II. Specifically, the military wanted a new rifle chambered in an intermediate cartridge, capable of automatic fire, and equipped with a detachable magazine.

If you’d like to learn more about the evolution of intermediate cartridges, read the article below.

After a very controversial selection process, the Army eventually settled on the M-14 rifle and the new 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge.

The original 7.62x51mm NATO M80 ball load fired a 146 grain full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet at 2,750 feet per second (2,469 foot pounds of muzzle energy). The 7.62x51mm NATO had virtually the same ballistics as the original .30-06 Springfield load (150 grain bullet at 2,700 feet per second) and also fired a .308″ bullet. However, the 7.62x51mm achieved that performance with a much shorter case (51mm vs 63mm) due to advances in powder technology that occurred after the development of the .30-06.

Though the 7.62x51mm NATO had a very short lived career as the primary rifle cartridge for the US military, it’s still widely used by the military in machineguns and sniper/designated marksman rifles. Additionally, Winchester recognized serious commercial potential with the 7.62x51mm cartridge and introduced the extremely similar .308 Winchester cartridge for the civilian hunting and shooting markets in the 1950s.

Providing approximately 90% of the power of the .30-06 in a smaller package, the cartridge soon became very popular and is now one of the most widely used big game hunting rounds in North America.

If you’d like to learn more about how the .308 Winchester compares to the .30-06 Springfield, read the article below:

270 vs 308: Cartridge Sizes

As you can see in the photo below, the .270 Winchester and .308 Winchester cartridges have very different external dimensions.

The .270 Winchester has a significantly longer case length (2.54″ vs 2.015″) as well as overall length (3.34″ vs 2.81″). For this reason, the .270 Winchester is used in standard/long action rifles, while the .308 Winchester is the poster child for short action rifles.

Both cartridges have the same .473″ rim diameter. However, the .308 has a slightly steeper shoulder angle (20 degrees vs 17.5 degrees). Even so, the .270 Winchester has significantly more case capacity due to the much longer case used by the cartridge.

Finally, the .270 Winchester has a slightly higher maximum average pressure authorized by SAAMI (65,000psi vs 62,000psi for the .308 Win).

Note: while the case capacity figures listed below do give a good indication of the differences between the three cartridges, exact case capacities vary slightly according to the brand of brass used.

270 vs 308 Ballistics

By necking down the .30-06 case to shoot smaller diameter bullets, the designers of the .270 Winchester built a cartridge with a higher velocity, flatter trajectory, and less recoil than the .30-06 Springfield. Since the .308 Winchester is essentially a scaled down .30-06, with the exception of recoil (which we’ll get to in a minute) the .270 Winchester has the same advantages over the .308 as it does over the .30-06.

However, since most modern .30-06 factory loads have a small edge in velocity (usually around 100-200fps) over .308 factory loads shooting the same weight bullet, the advantage in velocity of the .270 Winchester is even more pronounced when compared to the .308.

This is because the smaller diameter .270 Winchester shoots lighter bullets than the .308 and the .30-06.

For instance, though it’s possible to find .308 ammo shooting bullets weighing as little as 110 grains, most .308 Winchester factory loads designed for big game hunting use heavier weight bullets in the 150 grain to 180 grain range. 150 grain, 165 grain, 168 grain, and 180 grain bullets are most popular for that cartridge. On the other hand, the majority of .270 Winchester factory loads shoot bullets in the 120-150 grain range. Of these, 130 grain and 150 grain bullets are by far the most common.

Additionally, everything else being equal, the smaller diameter bullets used by the .270 Winchester have a higher ballistic coefficient than the larger diameter bullets of the same weight from the .308 Winchester.

However, the .308 Winchester can use heavier bullets than .270 Winchester.

This is illustrated below when comparing four different Federal Premium Nosler Partition loads for the two cartridges. Specifically, the table below compares 130gr (.416 BC) and 150gr (.466 BC) loads in .270 Winchester and 150gr (.387 BC) and 180gr (.484 BC) loads in .308 Winchester.

As you can see, the 180gr .308 load uses a slightly more aerodynamic bullet than those used by the .270. However, the 130gr and 150gr Nosler Partition bullets used in this comparison by the .270 are both more aerodynamic than the 150gr .308 bullet.

This data is for Federal factory ammo using a 200 yard zero.

Not surprisingly, there is a significant difference in the bullet trajectories between the two cartridges.

The .270 Winchester has a slight edge over the .308 when both are using 150gr bullets. However, the 130gr .270 load has an even flatter trajectory with 8.9-15.8″ less bullet drop at 500 yards than both .308 Winchester loads.

With regards to energy, the cartridges are fairly evenly matched to start out with. The gap in kinetic energy grows slightly in favor of the .270 when compared to the 150gr .308 Winchester load at all ranges. However, the opposite happens with the more aerodynamic 180gr .308 Winchester load at longer range.

All things considered, the two cartridges are fairly evenly matched in energy.

The chart below compares how much a 10 mile per hour crosswind impacts those same four loads out to 500 yards.

Once again we see that the two cartridges are fairly evenly matched at shorter range, but the .270 has a slight advantage in wind drift that grows as range increases. This is because the .270 Winchester loads shoot more aerodynamic bullets (with the exception of the 180gr .308 load) at a higher velocity.

Now let’s talk about recoil.

The table below compares the recoil produced by 130gr and 150gr .270 loads to 150gr and 180gr .308 loads (all shooting a Nosler Partition bullet) when fired from identical 7 pound rifles.

Felt recoil will vary from shooter to shooter and rifle to rifle, but free recoil energy is still a useful way to compare cartridges.

Interestingly, with the exception of the milder recoiling 150gr .308 load, the two cartridges have almost identical recoil.

However, that makes sense when you consider that the .308 and .270 were designed as lower recoiling alternatives to the .30-06. This fits with the original intent of the designers interested in building a mild shooting and easy to handle cartridge that was still powerful enough for hunting medium sized game at short to moderate range.

So where do we stand with each cartridge?

The .270 Winchester is a very flat shooting and moderately powerful cartridge, especially considering that it’s nearly 100 years old. With moderate recoil that’s roughly comparable to the .308 and noticeably lighter than the .30-06 Springfield, most shooters and hunters can handle it without much trouble.

While recoil is more or less comparable between the two cartridges, typical .308 Winchester loads do not have as flat of a trajectory as typical .270 loads.

However, the .308 is available with heavier bullets than the .270 and is available in a wider range of bullet weights and models.

As we’ll discuss in a minute, this is partly due to the widespread use of the .308 Winchester (and other .30 caliber cartridges like the .30-06, .300 Win Mag, .300 Ultra Mag, and 300 PRC) in long distance shooting competitions. These projectiles quite often take advantage of the latest developments in bullet development and offer advantages in precision and ballistic coefficient compared to the bullets used by the .270.

Additionally, there are a couple of other factors that are also worth discussing though.

First, the .308 Winchester uses larger diameter bullets than the .270 Winchester.

Specifically, the larger diameter .308″ bullets used by the .308 have about 24% more frontal surface area (also known as cross sectional area) than the .277″ bullets used by the .270 (.0745 vs .0603 square inches). All other things being equal, a bigger bullet will make a bigger hole, cause more tissue damage, and result in more blood loss.

This is a definite, though slight, factor in favor of the .308.

On the other hand, many of the .277″ bullets have a higher sectional density (SD) than the most common bullets used in the .308 though.

Sectional density (SD) is a measure of the ratio of the diameter of a projectile to its mass. All other things equal, a heavier projectile of a given caliber will be longer and therefore have a higher sectional density and consequently penetrate deeper than projectiles with a lower mass and sectional density.

Everything else being equal, the smaller diameter .277″ bullets have a higher ballistic coefficient and a higher sectional density than the larger diameter bullets of the same weight from the .308. However, the .308 generally uses heavier bullets than the .270 Winchester.

All that being said, the .270 Winchester still has a slight edge with most bullets in common use, even when compared to heavier .30 caliber bullets.

As an example, 130 grain, 140 grain, and 150 grain .277″ bullets have sectional densities of .242, .261, and .279 respectively. This compares favorably to 150 grain, 168 grain, and 180 grain .308″ bullets which have sectional densities of .226, .253, and .271 respectively.

For the most part, this also applies to ballistic coefficient.

The bullets used in this comparison illustrate those differences well with the .270 Winchester using 130gr (.416 BC) and 150gr (.466 BC) bullets compared to the 150gr (.387 BC) and 180gr (.484 BC) bullets used by the .308.

With the exception of the 180gr .308 bullets, the .270 has the edge across the board with regards to using more aerodynamic bullets in this comparison.

It’s difficult to pick an accuracy winner between the 270 vs 308 though because it’s something of an apples to oranges comparison. Both cartridges are capable of outstanding accuracy, but the .270 Winchester is used almost exclusively as a hunting cartridge. On the other hand, even though the .270 Winchester does shoot flatter in many cases, military and police snipers, hunters, and practical and/or long distance shooting competitors have all used the .308 Winchester extensively over the years.

For that reason, users of the .308 Winchester benefit from the extensive the research and development that has gone into refining .308″ bullets and rifles for long range shooting in the United States over the last century.

All that being said, while the .308 probably has a slight edge here, both cartridges have the potential for excellent accuracy in the right hands.

If you’d like to learn more about the accuracy of the .308 Winchester and how it compares to cartridge purpose built for long range competition shooting, read this article:

308 vs 270: Ammunition Selection

The .308 Winchester and .270 Winchester are two of the most popular centerfire rifle cartridges in North America. In fact, I’d wager that they’re both among the Top 10 (if not the Top 5) best selling rifle cartridges in the United States each year.

Not surprisingly, pretty much every ammunition manufacturer of note like Barnes, Black Hills, Browning, Federal Premium, Fiocchi, Hornady, Magtech, Nosler, PMC, PPU, Remington, Swift, and Winchester (just to name a few) produce a wide variety of ammo for both cartridges.

Virtually every major style of bullet is available in .270 and .308 as well like the Barnes TTSX, the Hornady ELD-X, GMX, InterBond, InterLock, SST, and V-Max, the Nosler AccuBond, AccuBond Long Range, Ballistic Tip, E-Tip, and Partition, the Remington Core Lokt, the Swift Scirocco and A-Frame, and the Winchester Power Point (just to name a few).

Prices and availability vary from region to region, but ammunition for both cartridges is widely available. In fact, if a sporting goods store only carried ammo for three different centerfire rifle cartridges, I’d bet money they’d have .270, .308, and .30-06 ammo.

Basically, there is no shortage of quality .270 Win and .308 Win factory ammunition suitable for hunting.

If you’d like to learn more about some of the various hunting ammunition choices for the .308 Winchester and .270 Winchester cartridges, read the articles below:

Both cartridges are also well suited for handloaders and reloading components for both cartridges are widely available. With regards to bullet selection, .308″ bullets in particular are very easy to find. Though only a few cartridges use .277″ bullets, the .270 is extremely popular and there’s a plethora of quality bullets to choose from.

308 vs 270: Rifle Selection

Similar to the abundant ammunition choices available in .308 Winchester and .270 Winchester, there are also plenty of quality rifles manufactured in the two cartridges. Regardless of the cartridge you choose, finding a good deer rifle shouldn’t be an issue.

Both are very common in bolt-action rifles. Of course Remington and Winchester produce the Model 70 and Model 700 rifles in .270 and .308 Winchester. Additionally, the Browning X-Bolt, Kimber Hunter, Mossberg Patriot, Nosler Liberty, Ruger American, Ruger Hawkeye, Savage Axis, Thompson Center Compass, Tikka T3, and Weatherby Vanguard are available in both calibers.

Aside from the Browning BAR, the .270 Winchester is almost non-existent in semi-automatic rifles. On the other hand, the .308 Winchester is relatively common in semi-automatic sporting rifles like the AR-10 and M1A.

Though there is quite a bit of overlap in barrel lengths, .270 rifles often have slightly longer barrels than .308 rifles. That’s not a hard and fast rule though, and 22″ and 24″ barrels are very common for both cartridges.

All things considered, identical rifles chambered in .270 Winchester tend to be slightly longer, heavier, and more unwieldy than rifles chambered in .308.

The Winchester Model 70 Super Grade illustrates these differences well.

When chambered in .308 Winchester, the rifle has a 22″ barrel, an overall length of 42.25″, and weighs 7.75 pounds. The same rifle chambered in .270 Winchester has a 24″ barrel, is 44.75″ long, and weighs 8.25 pounds.

So, the rifle chambered in .270 Winchester is 2″ longer and weighs about a half pound more than the exact same model chambered in .308 Winchester.

Barrel lengths do vary depending on the manufacturer and exact model.

At the same time though, the .308 Winchester is sometimes available in more compact rifles with shorter 18-20″ barrels.

Having a shorter and lighter rifle is more important on some hunts than on others. So, just keep that in mind.

270 vs 308: Which Is Right For You?

With good shot placement and when using quality bullets, the .270 Winchester and .308 Winchester are ideally suited for hunting medium to large sized game.

They are both incredibly effective (and popular) deer hunting cartridges and hunters armed with the .270 and .308 make up a significant portion of the annual whitetail deer harvest each year in the United States. Both are also great for similarly sized game like black bear, feral hogs, javelina, mule deer, and pronghorn as well as exotic game like axis, sika, and fallow deer.

However, the flat trajectory and resistance to wind drift of the .270 Winchester makes it a really good choice for game that might require a longer shot such as pronghorn or mule deer. The relatively light recoil of the cartridge also makes it easier to handle in a lightweight rifle that’s desirable on a mountain hunt. Jack O’Connor was really onto something with his affinity for the .270 as a sheep hunting cartridge. Those same characteristics also make it a very good choice for mountain goat in Canada or Himalayan Tahr and chamois while hunting in New Zealand.

On the other hand, since it shoots heavier and larger diameter bullets, the .308 Winchester has a clear advantage when hunting larger species like moose, elk, and caribou. Especially when using a heavy bullet (180+ grains), the .308 has a significant advantage when hunting most plains game in Africa like blue wildebeest, kudu, and eland.

Now the .308 Winchester is a perfectly capable long range cartridge and plenty of hunters use it on mountain hunts each year. After all, the recoil of the .308 is very similar to the .270. By the same token, the .270 has taken untold numbers of moose, elk and plains game without any issues. For instance, the 150gr Nosler Partition below really did a number on a big kudu bull in South Africa.

It’s really just a matter of each cartridge having certain strengths and weaknesses.

Do you primarily hunt medium sized game like whitetail deer, feral hogs, or black bear at ranges within 200 yards? Both are extremely effective deer hunting cartridges and will absolutely get the job done on medium sized game if you do your part. Both are great deer hunting cartridges and are among the most popular North American hunting cartridges in general, so it’s really hard to go wrong here.

If you’re going to be hunting in thick brush or in the tight confines of a deer stand, remember what I just mentioned about the size difference with 308 vs 270 rifles. That extra couple of inches in overall length of a rifle can be a real headache to deal with when trying to quickly and quietly maneuver for a shot.

Are you looking for the cartridge better suited for long range hunting for game like mule deer or pronghorn in open country where you might need to take a shot at several hundred yards? Both will work, but the .270 Winchester is probably the better choice for you. With a significantly flatter trajectory and more resistance to wind, the cartridge does very well on longer shots, particularly on thin skinned game like mule deer, pronghorn, sheep, or tahr.

Do you want to hunt larger game animals like kudu, eland, red stag, elk, or moose? Neither would be my first choice for this sort of hunting, but both cartridges will certainly work and lots of people have used them with success on bigger game. In my opinion, the .308 Winchester is probably the better choice in this case since it uses larger diameter and heavier bullets that are well suited for very large or tough animals.

Regardless of which cartridge you choose, use a controlled expansion projectile and a heavier bullet weight for your elk or moose hunt.

Even though they have slightly different strengths and weaknesses, the .270 Winchester and .308 Winchester are outstanding rifle cartridges. While the differences between them (.270 vs 308) are pretty significant in some respects, they’re both acceptable for a wide range of hunting tasks.

Get a nice hunting rifle chambered in the cartridge that you think fits your needs the best, learn to shoot it well, use quality bullets, and you’ll be well prepared for most common hunting situations.

Are you just itching to take a rifle chambered in one of these cartridges on a hunt?

Enjoy this article comparing the .270 and .308 Winchester cartridges? Please share it with your friends on Facebook and Twitter.

The Lyman 50th Edition (197-198, p241-245), and Hornady 10th Edition (p251-355, p474-488) reloading manuals were also used as references for the history of the cartridges and provided data to compare their size and recoil. Ballistic data for the original 7.62x51mm military cartridge was obtained from Inetres. The data used to compare the trajectory and wind drift of the cartridges was obtained from Federal. Maximum pressure obtained from SAAMI (p171 and p172). Case capacities for the .270 Win and .308 Win were obtained from Nosler. I used the Federal Ballistic calculator and ShootersCalculator.com to compare wind drift, the range each bullet goes subsonic, and recoil for the cartridges.

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Multidisciplinary Studies Curriculum

Students use and manipulate data sets needed for analysis and presentation. Students will build and edit detailed electronic spreadsheets containing advanced features and functions such as financial formulas, pivot tables and charts, scenarios and data filters. Some statistical concepts and their applications within MS Excel are introduced. Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate proficiency in Excel through Microsoft Office Specialist certification examination. $45 lab fee required.

CS 280H – Introduction to Data Analysis-Honors

Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher.

Students use and manipulate data sets needed for analysis and presentation. Students will build and edit detailed electronic spreadsheets containing advanced features and functions such as financial formulas, pivot tables and charts, scenarios and data filters. Some statistical concepts and their applications within MS Excel are introduced. Honors course will introduce advanced data analysis topics including: “big data,” data mining, and data visualization tools, such as Tableau and Power BI. Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate proficiency through Microsoft Office Specialist certification exam. $45 lab fee required.

AM 250 – Professional Careers in Communication Media (4 units)

**** This course prepares students for a career in their respective art. Students will explore the myriad of ways that their education can become a career, and where they might take their experiences from MCU after graduating. They will study professional artists, designers, filmmakers, performers, and ethics in the arts. They will learn self-promotion, brand building, how to pitch a project, attend networking functions, sell their art and look at the possibility of continuing their education with a master’s degree. $50 technology fee required. R1, PS4, PS5 (for DCM majors only)

BUS 265 – Career Planning and Preparation Seminar (2 units)

This course focuses on practical skills such as writing resumes and cover letters, utilizing professional online networking resources, assessing career interests and researching internship opportunities.

CJ 460– Seminar in Criminal Justice (4 units)
Prerequisite: CJ 101

This course is intended to provide criminal justice majors with resources in career planning toward specific post-graduation goals of employment within the large criminal justice system. The course is intended only for CJ majors. (Formerly CJ 360)

PSY 350 – Junior Seminar in Psychology (4 units)
Prerequisite: PSY 150 and Junior standing

This course is intended to provide psychology majors with resources in career planning toward specific post-graduation goals of either seeking psychology-related employment, or applying for graduate school. The course is designed to facilitate preparation for senior year, a practicum placement at a psychology-related site (if applicable), and the establishment of a successful work identity and goals. This course is intended only for declared psychology majors and MDS students with a Psychology emphasis.

SCI 342 – Science Career Seminar (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 233 or 241 or 315

he course will emphasize important issues in biology and increase awareness of the diversity of research topics. The course is designed to stimulate students’ interest in research, to develop and enhance their ability to think scientifically, to clearly present information orally and to summarize in written format the content of a scientific journal. Students will be exposed to reports, readings and participate in discussions of materials relevant to biology field.

This course is an introductory course for Multidisciplinary Studies students. This is also a good exploratory class for undeclared students. Students learn foundational skills from various academic areas and methodologies for approaching complex issues across the disciplines. Students develop and apply critical thinking, problem solving, and effective oral and written communication. Students plan a program of study and introductory career development appropriate within the Multidisciplinary Studies degree. A3, R1

Prerequisite: Junior standing.

This course provides an introduction to theories and practices of multidisciplinary studies. Students will research from an interdisciplinary approach to make connections between research and knowledge across disciplines. Students will integrate elements from two disciplines into one well-defined content area. C1

Prerequisite: Senior standing ID 350, completion of AA core requirements, and approval of Program Chair.

Senior seminar in which, under the leadership of a designated instructor, students complete a senior project. The project will culminate in an oral and/or audio-visual and written presentation.

AREAS OF EMPHASIS

Students choose 2 of 10 areas of emphasis

ACCT 151 * Financial Accounting (4 units) Every F/SP

Introduction to financial accounting of the corporate entity, including generally accepted accounting principles underlying the analyzing and recording of transactions for preparation of the financial statements. Focus on understanding assets, liabilities, and equity accounts, as well as understanding internal control and the Sarbanes Oxley Act (2002) regulatory requirements. Introduction to financial statement analytical methods to assess the liquidity, solvency, and profitability of a business.

ACCT 201 Managerial Accounting (4 units) Every F/SP

Prerequisite: ACCT 151. Introduction to managerial accounting. Managerial accounting topics and concepts, cost-volume profit analysis, contribution margin, capital budgeting, flexible budgets and profit planning, standard costs and variance analysis, decision making, responsibility accounting, job order costing and process costing.

ACCT 340 Accounting Information Systems (4 units) Every F

Prerequisite: ACCT 151 Students will explore topics in AIS to understand and use technologies in making decisions in areas of the accounting profession, such as managerial accounting, financial accounting, auditing, and tax accounting. An introduction to the information systems used in accounting including: the flow of data from source documents through the accounting cycle into reports for decision makers, the use of enterprise resource planning software (ERP), the principle of internal control, flowcharting and systems narratives and the use of database systems in accounting. Additionally, students will gain experience in Microsoft Excel as well as integrated software designed to handle general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, financial statement analysis, fixed assets, sales order processing, inventory, and payroll. R2

ACCT 453 Auditing (4 units)

Prerequisite: ACCT 151 This course focuses on the contemporary auditing environment, the auditing profession, and the principles and practices of financial statement auditing. Topics include: auditing, attestation and assurance services, Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS), regulatory requirements, internal controls, and audit risk. Audit planning is also covered including procedures, evidence and documentation. Students will research changes in the accounting and auditing profession due to legislation, new pronouncements by regulatory and standard-setting bodies and forces of current events in the business world. Students will also develop an understanding of the auditor’s ethical considerations. The course will culminate in an audit project including a report either with and existing organization or with financial information provided by the instructor.

ACCT 351 Intermediate Accounting I (4 units) Every F

Prerequisite: ACCT 201 This course provides students with a comprehensive examination of financial accounting and reporting. Topics include: conceptual framework, preparation and presentation of financial statements, revenue recognition, percentage of completion and comprehensive income, recording and reporting of cash, receivables and inventory valuation issues, plant assets, intangible assets, current liabilities and contingent liabilities.

ACCT 352 Intermediate Accounting II (4 units) Every SP

Prerequisite: ACCT 351 This course is the second of the two-course intermediate accounting sequence. Topics include: long-term liabilities including bonds valuation, off-balance sheet financing, construction contracts, leases, pensions/postretirement benefits issues and reporting, deferred income taxes, stockholders’ equity including complex capital structures, dilutive securities and earnings per share, investments equity and fair value accounting, and the preparation of statements of cash flow. Students will also become familiar with reporting requirements including: disclosure requirements, interim reporting requirements, projections and pro-forma financial statements.

ACCT 353 Federal Income Taxation I (4 units) Every F

Prerequisite: ACCT 151 This course focuses on federal income taxation as it is applied to individuals, sole proprietorships, partnerships and corporations. Topics include: determination of basis regarding the formation of corporations and partnerships, the federal income taxation of corporations, the taxation of estates, gifts and trusts, corporate tax returns as well as tax issues involving S-corporations. Gain or loss rules regarding distributions, sale of interest and dissolution are also covered.

ACCT 391/491 Accounting Internship (4 units) Every F/SP/SU

BUS 380 Corporate Finance (4 units) Every F/SP

Prerequisites: ACCT 151 and MTH 270. Familiarity with Excel is recommended. This course introduces concepts and techniques of financial analysis with emphasis on corporate finance, although the financial principles explored in the course are useful for small business and personal financial decisions. Topics include financial statement analysis, corporate valuation, the time value of money and net present value, capital structure, and project analysis. These techniques can be applied to financial management in both the profit and nonprofit sectors. A2, R2

AM 120 Digital Foundations (4 units)
Offered every fall and spring

Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory. A digital design class, which explores elements and principles of Art and Design using media disciplines: video, animation, graphic design, website design, and ethics of art production.$50 technology fee required. R2, PS4, PS5

AM 101 – Western Civilization Art to the Renaissance (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture

This history course surveys the painting, sculpture and architecture of Western civilization from prehistoric times to the Renaissance. Analysis, evaluation and the interpretation of major themes in the development of the visual arts in Western Culture are explored.

AM 102 – History of Broadcast Media (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture

This course examines the history of Radio and Television in the 20th Century. The course explores the development of broadcast media technologies as well as the evolution of the content of these medium including the news, entertainment genres, sports and advertising.

AM 105 – Introduction to Arts & Media Methodology (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture.

This class explores theories of Arts and Media. Topics will include film, animation, interactive media, graphic design and ethics in the arts. Students research and analyze these art forms through diverse verbal and written projects

AM 112 – Introduction to Journalism (4 units)

This course introduces the student to the art of journalism. Students explore the different writing styles of radio, television and newspaper reporting. Students examine the social and political forces that shape the news and that have defined journalism during the 20th century. Students will also examine the legal and ethical issues related to the profession. Internet journalism and blogging are also discussed

AM 201 – Western Civilization Art Since the Renaissance (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture.

This history course surveys the painting, sculpture and architecture of Western civilization from the Renaissance through the 19th Century. The course explores the religious, philosophical, social and political ideas that have influenced artists and art movements throughout this period.

AM 202 – History of Film (4 units) Class hours: 4 lecture. This course surveys the evolution of filmmaking in the 20th and 21st centuries. The course exposes students to a wide range of film genres and explores how the cultural, political and ideological values have influenced filmmakers and the art of filmmaking. Critical analysis of film scriptwriting, cinematography, direction, acting and style are emphasized. PS4

AM 211 – Asian Art & Architecture (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture

This history course surveys the painting, sculpture and architecture of Non-Western cultures including China, Japan, India and Southeast Asia. The course explores how the ideals, values and religious beliefs of Non-Western cultures have influenced the art and artists of Asia.

AM 221 – History of Graphic Design (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture.

A history of typography, graphic design and illustration. Students will acquire foundational knowledge of the history of design beginning with the early forms of writing and graphic designs such as cuneiform and illuminated manuscripts. Examines how these early forms of design evolved over time into the various disciplines that have become the foundations for visual communications in contemporary times.

AM 301 – Contemporary Art (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture.

This history course surveys the painting, sculpture and architecture of contemporary art from the 20th and 21st Centuries. Analysis, evaluation and the interpretation of major themes in the development of the visual arts in Western Culture are explored. The course explores the philosophical, social and political ideas that have influenced contemporary artists and art.

AM 305 – History of International Cinema (4 units) **** Class hours: 4 lecture. A study of the cinematic styles and history of five major regions of the world: Europe, Russia, China, Japan and India. Modules of study will follow each of these geographical locations from the advent of motion pictures to their modern day states, students will learn about important and unique films and filmmakers from each culture. Special attention will be given to the ways in which each culture has had a unique and important influence on the global cinematic community. PS2, PS4

AM 306 – History of Documentary Film (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture.

A chronological history of documentary film from its origins in 1887 to the mass proliferation of social media documentarians of the present. This course will highlight important documentarians as well as touch on multiple genres of documentary film, from the traditional to the cutting edge. Students will learn about the various styles of documentary and the many storytelling techniques used throughout the art form.

AM 308 – History of Game Design and Animation (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture

This course surveys the history of game design and animation. Examines the historical and ongoing relationships between animation meant for cinema and animation meant for digital games. Course topics include creation, design, aesthetic, technology and evolution of animation and video games beginning in the twentieth century through current day.

D 111 – Immersive Reality for Interdisciplinary Applications and Enterprise (4 units) An introductory course in reactive technology. Immersive technology such as Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) is now a mainstream phenomenon used in many industries including, film, media, science, computer science, games, criminal justice, psychology, business and enterprise. In this course students from across the university will learn an overview of the field of virtual reality, and substantive training in the appropriate tools. Students will work in teams to learn about immersive technology for real-world international application, use immersive VR simulations relevant to their respective fields. R2, PS4

ID 200H – Artificial Intelligence: Computational Creativity and Empathy-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. This interdisciplinary course explores history, representation and utilization of artificial intelligence in various forms of cultural productions including literature, film, art, music and video games. Students learn the ethical issues associated with the use of artificial intelligence in cultural productions and its impact on how we see and understand our world. PS4, PS5

16 units of AM, MUS, THE, or ID
ELECTIVES (16 units, 4 units minimum upper division)

SCI 115 – Fundamentals of Chemistry (5 units)

This is a lecture and laboratory course with a discussion section. The fundamental principles of chemistry are stressed, with emphasis on the chemistry of inorganic compounds. Includes the topics of atomic structure, chemical bonding, descriptive chemistry, stoichiometry, gas laws, solutions, equilibrium and redox. Recommended for students as a prerequisite for SCI 220, SCI 240, and/or SCI 116. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 220 – General Chemistry I (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 115, or passing grade on the chemistry proficiency exam

This is a lecture and laboratory course with a discussion section. General Chemistry for Science and Engineering majors with laboratory. This is the first semester of a two-term sequence. It covers fundamental principles and laws of chemistry. Topics include states of matter, measurement, atomic structure, quantum theory, periodicity, chemical reactions, molecular structure and chemical bonding, stoichiometry, gas laws and theories and solutions. The laboratory work emphasizes physical-chemical measurements, quantitative analysis and synthesis. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 240 – General Biology I (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 115 or 220

This is a lecture and laboratory course. This is the first of the three-course sequence designed for Biology majors. It provides a foundation in the principles of scientific inquiry and research, as well as to introduce to the structure and functions of a cell, as the basic unit of life. It describes cellular energy transformations and the process of growth including mitosis, meiosis and life cycles. In addition, laboratory sessions encourage the development of data collection and graphing skills and require scientific analysis and interpretation of data. The nature of scientific though and current progress in biology are discussed. No Lab fee for ’20-21.

SCI 241 – General Biology II (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 240

This is a lecture and laboratory course. This is the second of the three-course sequence designed for Biology majors. It provides a foundation in the principles of genetics, evolution and ecology. Topics include the structure, function and transmission of genes from the perspectives of classical genetics and molecular biology, evolution and the 143 Course Listings & Descriptions interactions between organisms and their environment. In the laboratory sessions, students perform experiments that require data analysis and systematization. No Lab fee for ’20-21

SCI 242 – General Biology III (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 241
This is a lecture and laboratory course

This is the third of the three-course lecture and laboratory sequence designed for Biology majors. Biodiversity of organisms is explored and their systems examined at and above the cellular level with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates receiving equal attention. Topics include systematics, morphology, physiology, evolution and behavior. In addition, laboratory work included openinquiry investigations and library research. No Lab fee for ’20-21

8 units (4 units minimum upper division) from

SCI 130 – Biology of Animals (4 units)
Offered fall 2019, 2023

This is a lecture and laboratory course designed especially for the non-science major. Structure, function, development, evolution and overall diversity of animals. Interactions between animals and their environment. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 132- Human Anatomy (4 units)
Offered every fall
Recommended prerequisite: successful completion of high school or college biology.
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

An introduction to the structure of the human body at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Laboratory includes extensive dissection of preserved animals. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 133 – Human Physiology (4 units)
Offered every spring
Recommended prerequisite: High school biology and chemistry with a grade of C or better, or their college equivalents. SCI 132 strongly recommended.
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

An introduction to the function of the human body at the molecular, cellular and organ system levels of organization. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 136 – Medical Terminology (1 unit)
Offered every fall
Recommended prerequisite: a life science course.

This course provides an introduction to medical terminology/vocabulary commonly used in the medical field. Throughout the duration of the course students will learn the concept of “medical word building,” word origins and how to effectively analyze word roots, prefixes, and suffixes. This course will focus being able to properly build, spell, define, and pronounce medical terms.

SCI 150 Microbiology (4 units)
Not eligible if SCI 330 taken
Available fall 2019, 2021, 2023
Prerequisite: High school biology or chemistry or equivalent.
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

This course studies the biology of living microorganisms, with emphasis on bacteria and their role in health and other human-related activities. Stresses disease-related microbes, with emphasis on laboratory skills in culturing, isolation and identification of selected, non-pathogenic bacteria. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 155 – Introduction to Genetics (4 units)
Principles of heredity with emphasis on humans. Includes the structure and function of genetic material, inherited diseases, the role of genes in cancer and current research in genetic engineering. This course is for the non-science major and has no college science prerequisite.

SCI 160 – Marine Biology (4 units)
Offered Fall 2020, 2022, 2024
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

An introduction to the sea and its inhabitants. Includes study of the major marine ecosystems, with emphasis on the intertidal. Also considers the problems arising from man’s intervention in the natural marine systems. Laboratory emphasizes field studies, dissections and studies of live organisms. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 170 – Ecology of Humans (4 units)
Offered spring 2020, 2022, 2024
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

This is a study of the relationship between humans and the physical and biotic environment. The emphasis is directed toward the basic principles of ecology and evolution, the historical impact of humans on ecosystems and current environmental problems. No Lab fee for ’20-21.

SCI 233 – Science of Human Performance (4 units)
Offered every fall
Prerequisite: one course from SCI 130, 132, 133, 135, 145, 150, 155, 160, 240, 241, 242 or 246

Principles of physiology and nutrition as they relate to physical activity and human performance. The course offers an overview of the study of kinesiology-the study of human movement. The course is for students who want a better understanding of the positive effects of physical activity and nutrition on health, exercise performance and longevity.

SCI 246 – Nutrition (4 units)
Offered every spring

A comprehensive study of the biology of metabolism and nutrition, the pathology that results from poor nutrition, and the medical application of nutrition from neo-natal, pediatric, teen and adult perspectives. Students will gain knowledge of the psycho-social ramifications of nutrition in the current populace with special emphasis on alcohol disordered eating and diabetes.

SCI 320 Biochemistry (4 units)
Prerequisites: SCI 316
Lecture 4 hours per week

This course is a survey of biochemistry covering intermediary metabolism and compounds of biochemical interest. The focus is on the application of biochemicals, catabolic pathways and regulation, and the biochemical foundations of life. Topics covered include:biochemical bonds and reactions, enzyme kinetics, amino acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Metabolism and regulatory pathways: glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, citric acid cycle, degradation and biosynthesis of lipid glycogen synthesis and degradation, oxidative phosphorylation.

SCI 330 Biology of Microorganisms (4 units)
Offered spring 2021, 2023, 2025
Prerequisite: SCI 241
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

This course covers microbial biology, biochemistry and genetics ultrastructure and morphology, energy metabolism, physiology of bacterial growth, regulatory mechanisms, action of chemotherapeutic agents, and studies of clinical viruses, mycology and parasitology. The course covers the core concepts of microorganisms, emerging diseases, and the cutting-edge discoveries. No Lab fee for ’20-21

SCI 333 – Exercise Physiology (4 units)
Offered every spring
Prerequisite: SCI 233

Exercise physiology is the study of how the human body functions during exercise. The purpose of this lecture course is to increase understanding of acute and chronic physiological response to exercise. Regulation of metabolic pathways and endocrinology in health and metabolic diseases are also discussed. This is critical for a physical educator, athletic trainer, fitness coach, and/or exercise physiologist.

SCI 340 – Cell Biology (4 units)
Offered fall 2021, 2023, 2025
Prerequisite: SCI 241 and SCI 316

An introduction to the principles that guide cellular organization and function. An emphasis on modern genetic, genomic, proteomic approaches to cell biology. The course will include a study of the cell cycle through apoptosis, modern genetic and molecular technologies. This will include nanotechnology, bioluminescence, X-ray crystallographic data, and genetic engineering.

SCI 341 – Techniques in Biology Laboratory (2 units)
Offered every fall
Prerequisites: SCI 115, or passing grade on the chemistry proficiency exam, and SCI 240

This course is a study of basic laboratory techniques. It is designed to prepare the undergraduate students to gain an understanding of basic biological principles and to receive hands-on laboratory experience. Laboratory techniques include: skills for laboratory safety operating laboratory instruments how to keep a detailed lab notebook familiarity with written protocols and standard laboratory procedures handling pH meters, analytical scales, spectrophotometers, electrophoresis apparatus preparation of solutions and dilutions, DNA, RNA and protein isolation and analysis gel electrophoresis aseptic techniques use of light microscope polymerase chain reaction. No Lab fee for ’20-21

SCI 342 – Science Career Seminar (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 233 or 241 or 315

The course will emphasize important issues in biology and increase awareness 145 Course Listings & Descriptions of the diversity of research topics. The course is designed to stimulate students’ interest in research, to develop and enhance their ability to think scientifically, to clearly present information orally and to summarize in written format the content of a scientific journal. Students will be exposed to reports, readings and participate in discussions of materials relevant to biology field.

SCI 350 – Genomics (4 units)
Offered every fall
Prerequisite: SCI 241

Genomics covers both core concepts of genetics and cutting-edge discoveries. It will integrate formal genetics (rules by which genes are transmitted), molecular genetics (the structure of DNA and how it direct the structure of proteins), systems biology (analysis of the gene set and its expression), and human genetics (how genes contribute to health and disease).

SCI 380 – Molecular Biology (5 units)
Offered every spring
Prerequisite: SCI 241 and SCI 316
This is a lecture and laboratory course

Molecular Biology provides the chemical principles that determine the structure and function of macromolecules. The course will include the organization of the genetic material (DNA and RNA), and the maintenance of the genomes in chromosomes through DNA replication recombination and repair. The course will cover the techniques of molecular biology, genomic, proteomics, and bioinformatics. No Lab fee for ’20-21

SCI 440 – Immunology (4 units)
Offered fall 2020, 2022, 2024
Prerequisite: SCI 241

Immunology is the study of how the immune system works in both health and disease. This course focuses on understanding the mechanics of the immune response and also varied disease states which occur when the immune system is compromised. Genetics and clinical disease states are also discussed.

SCI 442 – Developmental Biology (4 units)|
Offered spring 2020, 2022, 2024
Prerequisite: SCI 241. Recommended preparation: SCI 340

The underlying principles and mechanisms regulating development in multicellular animals are covered. Differentiation, growth, morphogenesis, and patterning will be examined at the organismal, cellular, and molecular levels to provide a balanced view of developmental phenomena in key model organisms.

ACCT 151 Financial Accounting (4 units)
Offered every fall and spring

Introduction to financial accounting of the corporate entity, including generally accepted accounting principles underlying the analyzing and recording of transactions for preparation of the financial statements. Focus on understanding assets, liabilities, and equity accounts, as well as understanding internal control and the Sarbanes Oxley Act (2002) regulatory requirements. Introduction to financial statement analytical methods to assess the liquidity, solvency, and profitability of a business.

BUS 110 Intro. to Business (4 units)
Offered every fall and spring

The course examines the functions, objectives, organization and structure of business in a market economy and in a global context, including relationships among business, government, and the consumer. Course modules include business organization and management pricing and distribution human resources accounting financial management and investment and the nature, causes and implications of international trade and multi-national business organizations.

ECO 220 Microeconomics (4 units)
Offered every fall and spring

Essential principles of economic analysis from the viewpoint of choices to be made by individual economic units. Scarcity supply, demand and elasticity opportunity costs cost theory price and output determination under various market structures and factor markets government regulation comparative advantage international trade. Application of economic theory to current economic problems.

12 ACCT, BUS or ECON units (8 units minimum upper division or graduate)

SCI 220 – General Chemistry I (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 115, or passing grade on the chemistry proficiency exam

This is a lecture and laboratory course with a discussion section. General Chemistry for Science and Engineering majors with laboratory. This is the first semester of a two-term sequence. It covers fundamental principles and laws of chemistry. Topics include states of matter, measurement, atomic structure, quantum theory, periodicity, chemical reactions, molecular structure and chemical bonding, stoichiometry, gas laws and theories and solutions. The laboratory work emphasizes physical-chemical measurements, quantitative analysis and synthesis. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 221 – General Chemistry II (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 220

This is a lecture and laboratory course with a discussion section. This course is the second course in the two-term sequence for General Chemistry for Science Majors with Laboratory, 1 year. Topics include thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, 142 acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, descriptive chemistry of representative metallic and non-metallic elements, and an introduction to nuclear and organic chemistry. The laboratory work emphasizes physical-chemical measurements, quantitative analysis and synthesis. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 315 – Organic Chemistry I (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 221

This is a lecture and laboratory course. The first of the two-course Organic Chemistry sequence. Topics include an introduction to Organic Chemistry to include structure, reactions, mechanism, and analysis of major functional groups of organic chemistry. Discussion will include ionic and radical reactions. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 316 – Organic Chemistry II (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 315

This is a lecture and laboratory course. The second of the two-course Organic Chemistry sequence. Topics include structure and reactions of alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, amines, aromatic compounds, heterocycles, sugars and amino acids. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 320 – Biochemistry (4 units)
Prerequisites: SCI 316
Lecture 4 hours per week

This course is a survey of biochemistry covering intermediary metabolism and compounds of biochemical interest. The focus is on the application of biochemicals, catabolic pathways and regulation, and the biochemical foundations of life. Topics covered include:biochemical bonds and reactions, enzyme kinetics, amino acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Metabolism and regulatory pathways: glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, citric acid cycle, degradation and biosynthesis of lipid glycogen synthesis and degradation, oxidative phosphorylation.

SCI 321 – Biochemistry Lab (2 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 320
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

Biochemistry laboratory focuses on techniques used for preparation and quantitative analysis of macromolecules. The course addresses the current biochemical techniques used in research and in biotechnology laboratories. It covers micro pipetting, solution preparation, activity assays, homogenization, protein 144 detection using Bradford and colorimetric assays, SDS-PAGE, Western Blot analysis, enzyme kinetics, lipids and carbohydrates detection.No Lab fee for ’20-21.

CS 195 – Programming and Problem Solving (4 units)
Lecture and Laboratory
Prerequisites: prior experience with basic programming concepts recommended

Elements of good programming design, style, documentation and efficiency. Methods for debugging verification. Fundamental techniques for solving problems using C++ programming language. Principles and use of object-oriented programming, including overloading, data abstraction, templates, inheritance and polymorphism.

CS 196 – Introduction to Java Programming (4 units)
Prerequisite: prior experience with basic programming concepts recommended.

This course is an introduction to the Java programming language and the Object-Oriented Programming paradigm (OOP). Students will write programs to solve problems in business, mathematics and other subjects, working with character strings, arrays, functions and procedures. Java browser applets will also be covered.

CS 210 – Introduction to C Programming Language (4 units)

Fundamentals of the C programming language and its application to problem solving. Topics include structured programming techniques, variable types, control statements, built-in and user-coded procedures and functions, arrays, pointers, full handling, and use of the C library.

Choose Game design or Web Design 3-course sequence (12 units)

GAME DESIGN

AM 203 – Digital 3d Modeling (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

Students will gain a basic proficiency in Autodesk Maya 3D. Emphasis will be placed on principles of 3d design techniques for illustration and animation. The Autodesk Maya relationship to peripheral software such as Adobe Photoshop and After Effects will also be explored. $50 technology fee required.

AM 310 – Digital Game Design I (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

Students will gain a basic proficiency in using a game engine to aid in computer game development. This course explores theoretical and practical topics of game design including game engine user interface, use of game objects and assets, managing projects and assets, preparing assets for implementation, assemblage of game level environment, audio, game play, game look-and-feel, and user psychology. $50 technology fee required.

AM 410 – Digital Game Design II (4 units)
Prerequisites: AM 303 & AM 310
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

Students will gain intermediate to advanced proficiency in using a game engine to aid in computer game design development. Advanced game design topics include multilevel game design, animating game objects in a game editor, bringing animations into a game, scripting in game development, creating particle systems, building the camera and player selection system, and designing user interfaces for games. $50 technology fee required.

AM 104 – Introductory HTML & PHP (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture 2 laboratory

Students learn the basics of reading and writing HTML. Basic hand coding skills are acquired using Adobe Dreamweaver. Students will also learn introductory PHP scripting skills. Website administration methods and server technologies are also explored. $50 technology fee required.

AM 204 – Website Design I (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

Introduces students to Adobe Dreamweaver to create basic Web page layouts. Students learn the basics of HTML, CSS and Adobe Photoshop to prepare photography and create graphics for Websites. Emphasis is placed on technical proficiency, content development and design style. Basic Internet vocabulary and industry standards are covered. $50 technology fee required.

AM 334 – Website Technologies (4 units)
Prerequisite: AM 204
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

Advanced course covers various technologies for Website development. Students learn how to add sophisticated functionality to Websites with various coding and server technologies including PHP, Javascript, MySQL, Content Management Systems (CMS). Server administration and management is also covered. Emphasis is placed on technical proficiency. $50 technology fee required.

CJ 101 – Introduction to Criminal Justice (4 units)

This course is a study of the history and philosophy of administration of justice in the United States. The course will include a survey of law enforcement, the judiciary, and corrections. Topics include crime theory, role expectations and their inter-relationships, punishment, rehabilitation, ethics, education, and training.

CJ 121 – Concepts of Criminal Law (4 units)

This course examines the historical development and philosophy of law, including the provisions as set forth in the US Constitution, and its application to the criminal justice system. Topics covered in the course will include legal research, case law, crime classifications, crimes against persons, crimes against property, and crimes against the state.

CJ 301 – Strategic Communication: Literacy Skills for the Public Safety Professional (4 units)
Prerequisite: CJ 101

This course presents techniques for clearly communicating information during incidents, emergencies, or crisis situations. The course is primarily developed for the public sector for areas such as Criminal Justice, Emergency Management, Fire Service, Homeland Security, and other fields. It focuses on developing the student’s ability to organize information and present it in written, oral, and presentation formats through research, development, writing, and public presentations. Emphasis is placed on applying writing and group presentation skills to professional activities in the public and private sectors.

12 Criminal Justice units (8 minimum upper division)

AM 120 – Digital Foundations (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

A digital design class, which explores elements and principles of Art and Design using media disciplines: video, animation, graphic design, website design, and ethics of art production. $50 technology fee required.

AM 122 – Video Production Methods I (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

ENG (Electronic News Gathering) style digital video production methods using portable cameras, basic field lighting techniques and audio recording. Students learn the pre-production and post-production process of creating videos including the development of production outlines, scripts and editing to create an original short video. Emphasis is placed on technical proficiency with basic portable video equipment. $50 technology fee required.

AM 204 – Website Design I (4 units)
Class hours: 2 lecture, 2 laboratory

Introduces students to Adobe Dreamweaver to create basic Web page layouts. Students learn the basics of HTML, CSS and Adobe Photoshop to prepare photography and create graphics for Websites. Emphasis is placed on technical proficiency, content development and design style. Basic Internet vocabulary and industry standards are covered. $50 technology fee required.

CAR 145 – Communication Structures (4 units)

An examination of the structures underlying both verbal and visual modes of communication in modern society. Emphasis is placed on a study of comparable features in the various media used in the art of expression. Contemporary media will be investigated against a background of standard patterns of communication. Written, oral, and digital communication skills will also be developed through a series of written research projects and recorded and/or live presentations

12 AM or CAR units (4 units minimum upper division)

SCI 132 – Human Anatomy (4 units)
Recommended prerequisite: successful completion of high school or college biology

This is a lecture and laboratory course. An introduction to the structure of the human body at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Laboratory includes extensive dissection of preserved animals. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 133 – Human Physiology (4 units)
Recommended prerequisite: High school biology and chemistry with a grade of C or better, or their college equivalents. SCI 132 strongly recommended.

This is a lecture and laboratory course. An introduction to the function of the human body at the molecular, cellular and organ system levels of organization. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 233 – The Science of Human Performance (4 units)
Prerequisite: one course from SCI 130, 132, 133, 135, 145, 150, 155, 160, 240, 241, 242 or 246

Principles of physiology and nutrition as they relate to physical activity and human performance. The course offers an overview of the study of kinesiology-the study of human movement. The course is for students who want a better understanding of the positive effects of physical activity and nutrition on health, exercise performance and longevity.

SCI 246 – Nutrition (4 units)

A comprehensive study of the biology of metabolism and nutrition, the pathology that results from poor nutrition, and the medical application of nutrition from neo-natal, pediatric, teen and adult perspectives. Students will gain knowledge of the psycho-social ramifications of nutrition in the current populace with special emphasis on alcohol disordered eating and diabetes.

SCI 333 – Exercise Physiology (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 233

Exercise physiology is the study of how the human body functions during exercise. The purpose of this lecture course is to increase understanding of acute and chronic physiological response to exercise. Regulation of metabolic pathways and endocrinology in health and metabolic diseases are also discussed. This is critical for a physical educator, athletic trainer, fitness coach, and/or exercise physiologist

SCI 334 – Ergogenic Aids in Sports (4 units)

The purpose of this course is to increase understanding of commonly known nutritional supplements, drugs, and ergogenic aids used to enhance athletic performance. Coffee, drugs, and anabolic steroids are all examples of ergogenic aids. The risks and benefits associated with the use of ergogenic aids in sport performance and weight and fat loss will also be discussed as well as principles and policies of doping control.

PHI 100 – Contemporary Moral Issues (4 units)

A critical examination of controversial moral problems confronting contemporary society. Topics may include: abortion, capital punishment, environmental ethics, sexual morality, euthanasia, affluence and poverty, business ethics, censorship, gun control, discrimination, nuclear war, and genetic engineering.

PS5 PHI 110 – Ethics (4 units)

Concerned with the justification for how/why we treat each other and the environment. The focus is on the question of the good life, the development of moral character, the relative merits of ethical principles, and the ethical assumptions of the student and of modern society.

PHI 150 – Human Nature and Values (4 units)

The major ideologies and philosophies defining the meaning of human nature and their consequent values and philosophies of life: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity the teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Descartes, Darwin, Huxley, Marx, Freud, Skinner and Sartre scientific reductionism cybernetics.

PHI 120 – Introduction to Philosophy: History of Philosophy (4 units)

Selected major philosophies from the four great historical periods and their developmental influences into the 21st century. Ancient Philosophy (Buddha, Confucius, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) Medieval Philosophy (St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas) Modern Philosophy (Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant) Contemporary Philosophy (James, Ayer, Wittgenstein, Sartre, 20th Century Science).

PHI 130 – Logic – Critical Thinking (4 units)

A foundation course in formal and informal logic. Topics include the functions and forms of language, symbolizing ordinary language, deductive logic, inductive logic, informal fallacies, and the scientific method. Emphasis is on appreciating the value of sound/cogent reasoning and unambiguous communication.

PHI 145 – Philosophy of Religion (4 units)

A study of issues raised by religious faith: proofs for existence of God, the problem of evil, atheism, free will, existence/ immortality of the soul, and why there are so many religions.

8 upper division or Philosophy or Religious Studies courses

PSY 150 – General Psychology (4 units)

Survey of various fields within the discipline of psychology, such as perception, memory and personality, and how each of these fields contributes to understanding and improving human behavior.

PSY 235 – Introduction to Statistics for the Study of Behavior (4 units)

Application of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques for summarizing research data in the behavioral sciences including levels of measurement, frequency 133 Course Listings & Descriptions distributions, central tendency, variability, normal distributions, Central Limit Theorem, and applications of a variety of statistical tests. Data analysis technologies are used to develop digital literacy. Comparable to MTH 270. Credit will not be granted for both classes.

MTH 270 – Introductory Statistics (4 units)

An introductory course in probability and statistics. It includes calculation and analysis of statistical parameters with statistical software for personal computers. Topics include sampling, measures of central tendency and variability, probability distribution, normal and binomial distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing. Application of a variety of statistical tests, including the sign test, z-test, t-test, chi-square analysis of variance, linear regression and correlation, and non-parametric tests. Comparable to PSY 235. Credit will not be given for both courses.

16 Psychology units (8 units minimum upper division)

MCU BA CORE COMPETENCY REQUIREMENTS OUTSIDE OF THE MAJOR

ENG 112 – College Composition 1: Expository Writing (4 units)
Prerequisite – ENG 108, if required, with a C or higher
The course introduces students to the requirements of academic writing: the use of quotation, summary, paraphrase and to the conventions of documentation, using a variety of approaches, including enumeration, definition, comparison/contrast. Students are required to complete at least three major assignments, including a limited research paper or documented essay.

ENG 112H – College Composition I: Expository WritingHonors (4) Prerequisite: Placement into ENG 112 and invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. This honors course introduces students to the requirements of academic writing (quotation, paraphrase, summary) through a thematic approach that ties together all course assignments. Students will complete three formal essays, including a limited research paper, in addition to attending two theme-related field experiences.

CAR 101 – Introduction to Communication Studies (4 units)

Introductory course to the vast field of Communications. Theories, strategies and methods covered will provide students with an initial understanding of concepts as they relate to intercultural, interpersonal, organizational communication, public speaking and small group discussion. Students will acquire a knowledge of the academic background, the practice and the processes of the field of communication.

CAR 145 – Communication Structures (4 units)

An examination of the structures underlying both verbal and visual modes of communication in modern society. Emphasis is placed on a study of comparable features in the various media used in the art of expression. Contemporary media will be investigated against a background of standard patterns of communication. Written, oral, and digital communication skills will also be developed through a series of written research projects and recorded and/or live presentations.

BUS 230 – Business Communication (4 units)

Students learn to prepare effective written, verbal and digital presentations for a variety of business situations, including professional emails, memos, letters, individual and group oral and digital presentations, management briefs and reports. Attention is given to proficiency in the conventions of Standard Written English, well developed and well supported presentations, and strong delivery skills.

ID 230 Information Literacy (1 unit)
Learn to construct a research strategy and use research resources for academic and career endeavors. Examine information technology’s impact on the individual and society.

ACCT 340 – Accounting Information Systems (4 units)
Prerequisite: ACCT 151

Students will explore topics in AIS to understand and use technologies in making decisions in areas of the accounting profession, such as managerial accounting, financial accounting, auditing, and tax accounting. An introduction to the information systems used in accounting including: the flow of data from source documents through the accounting cycle into reports for decision makers, the use of enterprise resource planning software (ERP), the principle of internal control, flowcharting and systems narratives and the use of database systems in accounting. Additionally, students will gain experience in Microsoft Excel as well as integrated software designed to handle general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, financial statement analysis, fixed assets, sales order processing, inventory, and payroll.

AM 104, 120, 122, 132, 141, 151, 203, 204, 214, 222, 232, 241, 242, 251, 252, 261, 271, 303, 310, 311, 312, 314, 324, 334, 351, 400, 403, 410, 413 (See Catalog pages 89 – 97.)

BUS 350 – Principles of Marketing (4 units)
Prerequisite: BUS 110

A foundation course in marketing theory and applications. Topics covered will include consumer research, product development, positioning, branding, market segmentation, pricing, communication, promotion, and distribution, with emphasis on the firm’s own planning and strategic context

BUS 360 – Information Systems for Management (4 units)
Prerequisite: BUS 110. Recommended corequisite: BUS 300. Recommended: knowledge of computer technology and Microsoft Office applications.

An intensive and in-depth study of the rapidly evolving field of Business Information Systems. Students will analyze the role of technological, economic and market forces that have changed the US from a manufacturing industrial country to an information and service provider country. Emphasis is on identifying opportunities and understanding the challenges for startup businesses and the important role that user-friendly Business Information Systems play in the success of these startup companies.

BUS 380 – Corporate Finance (4 units)
Prerequisites: ACCT 151 and MTH 270. Familiarity with Excel is recommended.

This course introduces concepts and 101 Course Listings & Descriptions techniques of financial analysis with emphasis on corporate finance, although the financial principles explored in the course are useful for small business and personal financial decisions. Topics include financial statement analysis, corporate valuation, the time value of money and net present value, capital structure, and project analysis. These techniques can be applied to financial management in both the profit and nonprofit sectors.

BUS 388 – Applied Statistical Methods (4 units)
Prerequisite: MTH 270

This course is designed to go beyond the topics covered in a one-term introductory statistics course. These new topics include: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and special topics in regression analysis. The course will also investigate sets of data called time series, which consist of values corresponding to different time intervals. A major objective of this segment is to examine past time series data and use our observations to forecast, or predict future values. In addition, students will use Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics to learn how to incorporate statistical results into sample reports as well as gain exposure to the field of data analytics and the analysis of large complex datasets.

BUS 452 – Marketing Analytics and Forecasting (4m units)
Prerequisite: BUS 300 and BUS 350 and MTH 270

Applications of quantitative techniques, qualitative analyses, and software modeling for the optimization of marketing decision-making and market predictions. Students will learn empirical applications of market data analysis, pricing optimization, market forecasting, channel optimization, segmentation, perceptual mapping, return on promotion, OLAP, and market response models.

BUS 460 – Project Management (4 units)
Prerequisite: CS 280

Introductory project management. Topics include organizing and managing project teams, planning, scheduling and cost management. Emphasis on developing and organizing team projects from conception to conclusion. Students work with Microsoft Project.

CAR 401 – Social Media in Marketing (4 units)
Prerequisite: Junior standing

In this course students learn how to use social media for marketing with a global perspective. Through examining case studies and interactive class exercises students learn best practices and technical skills in order to connect business objectives with social media strategies, platforms and tactics.

CJ 301 – Strategic Communication: Literacy Skills for the Public Safety Professional (4 units)
Prerequisite: CJ 101

This course presents techniques for clearly communicating information during incidents, emergencies, or crisis situations. The course is primarily developed for the public sector for areas such as Criminal Justice, Emergency Management, Fire Service, Homeland Security, and other fields. It focuses on developing the student’s ability to organize information and present it in written, oral, and presentation formats through research, development, writing, and public presentations. Emphasis is placed on applying writing and group presentation skills to professional activities in the public and private sectors.

CJ 460– Seminar in Criminal Justice (4 units)
Prerequisite: CJ 101

This course is intended to provide criminal justice majors with resources in career planning toward specific post-graduation goals of employment within the large criminal justice system. The course is intended only for CJ majors.

CS 180 – Introduction to Computers (4 units)

Computer literacy, including an introduction to computer hardware, capabilities and limits of computers, the Internet, data transmission, and impacts of computing use of productivity tools, including word processors, presentation programs, spreadsheets, databases and communications programs. Laboratory exercises give students hands-on experience with productivity tools.

CS 183 – Computer Information Systems (4 units)

Lecture and Laboratory. The analysis, design, implementation, development and ongoing management of computer-based information systems related software, hardware and networking issues for business and industry end-user customization of applications and interfaces and selection of information, via query and scripting languages. Programming languages and fundamentals of programming. Computer issues in the workplace and society.

CS 195 – Programming and Problem Solving (4 units)
Lecture and Laboratory
Prerequisites: prior experience with basic programming concepts recommended

Elements of good programming design, style, documentation and efficiency. Methods for debugging verification. Fundamental techniques for solving problems using C++ programming language. Principles and use of object-oriented programming, including overloading, data abstraction, templates, inheritance and polymorphism.

CS 196 – Introduction to Java Programming (4 units)
Prerequisite: prior experience with basic programming concepts recommended

This course is an introduction to the Java programming language and the Object-Oriented Programming paradigm (OOP). Students will write programs to solve problems in business, mathematics and other subjects, working with character strings, arrays, functions and procedures. Java browser applets will also be covered.

CS 210 – Introduction to C Programming Language (4 units)

Fundamentals of the C programming language and its application to problem solving. Topics include structured programming techniques, variable types, control statements, built-in and user-coded procedures and functions, arrays, pointers, full handling, and use of the C library.

CS 500 – Advanced Data Analysis (1 unit)
Prerequisite: Graduate or senior standing.

Use and manipulation of data sets needed for data analysis and presentation. Students will build and edit detailed electronic spreadsheets containing advanced features and functions such as financial and statistical formulas, pivot tables and charts, scenarios, and data filters. Proficiency in Microsoft Excel will be developed. Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate proficiency in Excel through Microsoft Office Specialist certification examination. $45 lab fee required

PSY 240 – Research Methods for the Study of Behavior (4 units) Prerequisite: C or higher in PSY 235 or MTH 270. An introduction to scientific inquiry and research in the social sciences, including experimental and non-experimental designs. Includes data collection strategies, hypothesis testing, analyzing tests of measurement, and use of computer aids. Ethical perspectives, issues, and concepts are applied to case studies. For students planning to major in the behavioral/social sciences, Statistics is the first component of a recommended two-course sequence and should be followed by PSY 240.

PSY 350 – Junior Seminar in Psychology (4 units)
Prerequisite: PSY 150 and Junior standing

This course is intended to provide psychology majors with resources in career planning toward specific post-graduation goals of either seeking psychology-related employment, or applying for graduate school. The course is designed to facilitate preparation for senior year, a practicum placement at a psychology-related site (if applicable), and the establishment of a successful work identity and goals. This course is intended only for declared psychology majors and MDS students with a Psychology emphasis.

SCI 316 – Organic Chemistry II (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 315

This is a lecture and laboratory course. The second of the two-course Organic Chemistry sequence. Topics include structure and reactions of alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, amines, aromatic compounds, heterocycles, sugars and amino acids. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 330 – Biology of Microorganisms (4 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 241
This is a lecture and laboratory course.

This course covers microbial biology, biochemistry and genetics ultrastructure and morphology, energy metabolism, physiology of bacterial growth, regulatory mechanisms, action of chemotherapeutic agents, and studies of clinical viruses, mycology and parasitology. The course covers the core concepts of microorganisms, emerging diseases, and the cutting-edge discoveries. $150.00 lab fee required.

SCI 341 – Techniques in Biology Laboratory (2 units)
Prerequisites: SCI 115, or passing grade on the chemistry proficiency exam, and SCI 240

This course is a study of basic laboratory techniques. It is designed to prepare the undergraduate students to gain an understanding of basic biological principles and to receive hands-on laboratory experience. Laboratory techniques include: skills for laboratory safety operating laboratory instruments how to keep a detailed lab notebook familiarity with written protocols and standard laboratory procedures handling pH meters, analytical scales, spectrophotometers, electrophoresis apparatus preparation of solutions and dilutions, DNA, RNA and protein isolation and analysis gel electrophoresis aseptic techniques use of light microscope polymerase chain reaction. $150 lab fee required.

SCI 380 – Molecular Biology (5 units)
Prerequisite: SCI 241 and SCI 316

This is a lecture and laboratory course. Molecular Biology provides the chemical principles that determine the structure and function of macromolecules. The course will include the organization of the genetic material (DNA and RNA), and the maintenance of the genomes in chromosomes through DNA replication recombination and repair. The course will cover the techniques of molecular biology, genomic, proteomics, and bioinformatics. $150.00 lab fee required.

1 course from the following:

PHI 325 – Modern Catholic Philosophy (4 units)

This course introduces students to key movements and figures in Catholic philosophy from the nineteenth century through the present day: Romanticism, Ontologism, Integralism, Voluntarism, Phenomenology, Existentialism, Thomism, Analytical Philosophy, and Postmodernism. A3, PS1

REL 102 Roots of Western Religious Literature I (4 units)
The literature of ancient Hebrew civilization and of the early Christian movement, as preserved in the Bible, from a culture very different from our own. The course aims to capture a sense of what this literature meant to the people of its time by studying its historical, cultural and literary background. This provides depth and perspective for a student’s personal interpretation of the Bible.

REL 103 Roots of Western Religious Literature II (4 units)
The literature of the early Christian movement, as preserved in the New Testament of the Bible, was produced in a culture very different from our own. The course aims at reading this literature through the eyes of key persons of that time. The student will thus obtain a fresh perspective that will provide context and enrichment for personal reading of scripture literature.

REL 112 – Theology of the Nicene Creed (4 units)
An introductory survey of traditional Christian belief as expressed in the Nicene Constantinopolitan Creed. (Replacing REL 110).

REL 120 – Introduction to Catholic Thought (4 units)
Students will examine various themes in Catholic theology and how they relate to perennial human questions and aspirations. Theology can be understood as reflection upon faith experience, which in turn leads to the formulation of structures of belief. Students will gain an appreciation of the Catholic understanding of the human person, approach to revelation and mystery, and contribution to moral reasoning. In this conversation with the Catholic tradition, students will explore their own approach to foundational spiritual and ethical questions.

REL 130 – World Religions (4 units)
Introduction to the history, literature and thought patterns of the major religions of the world.
Or
REL 130H – World Religions-Honors (4) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. Introduction to the history, literature and thought patterns of the major religions of the world. Students will examine the nature, origin, function, and experience of religion through a research project that profiles the lived experience of a religious community of their choosing in the greater Los Angeles region. At least one field trip to a religious site will occur during the semester.

REL 230 – Catholic History & Thought (4 units)
Survey covering Catholic history, with a focus on thought, doctrine, ritual, and other aspects to provide students with a basic knowledge of the Church, its origins, development, and contemporary situation in a global context.

REL 310 – Catholic Social Teaching (4 units)
Studies the complex social problems facing the modern world by investigating the ways the Catholic Church, Catholic thinkers and activists have applied Christian principles to social issues, with special emphasis on official church documents since Leo XIII’s Rerum Novarum (1891). Students are not required to accept Catholic social teaching, but to enter into dialogue with it. PS1

AM 201 – Western Civilization Art Since the Renaissance (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture. This history course surveys the painting, sculpture and architecture of Western civilization from the Renaissance through the 19th Century. The course explores the religious, philosophical, social and political ideas that have influenced artists and art movements throughout this period.

AM 211 – Asian Art & Architecture (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture. This history course surveys the painting, sculpture and architecture of Non-Western cultures including China, Japan, India and Southeast Asia. The course explores how the ideals, values and religious beliefs of Non-Western cultures have influenced the art and artists of Asia.

AM 304 – History of Multimedia (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture. Explores how traditional forms of media including print, radio, film, photography and television evolved and have begun to converge into new digital forms of media in contemporary times, facilitating media democracy and transnationalism in the late 20th and the 21st century. Students learn the history of personal computer and the World Wide Web to understand the evolution of digital technologies as a catalyst for new and emerging media, and to survey culturally diverse media production in a dynamic global environment.

AM 305 – History of International Cinema (4 units)
Class hours: 4 lecture. A study of the cinematic styles and history of five major regions of the world: Europe, Russia, China, Japan and India. Modules of study will follow each of these geographical locations from the advent of motion pictures to their modern day states, students will learn about important and unique films and filmmakers from each culture. Special attention will be given to the ways in which each culture has had a unique and important influence on the global cinematic community.

BUS 535 – Global Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (3 units)
Prerequisite: Graduate or Senior standing.
Entrepreneurship is an integral part of economic change and growth. The course explains how economic conditions and incentives affect entrepreneurship, and how the actions of entrepreneurs in turn affect the broader economy. Entrepreneurship is viewed as an economic development strategy and entrepreneurs as agents of change and innovation. The course draws from recent theoretical insights and empirical findings to show how economics can contribute to our understanding of entrepreneurship.

CAR 301 – International Journalism (4 units)
This class focuses on the unique challenges of portraying foreign cultures in reporting. International journalism is a critical component in all facets of reporting, and this course develops an understanding of the complexities inherent in communications with foreign cultures. Students examine international journalists’ work, explore how they strive to connect cultures in media conversations and coverage, and generate writing that connects the world through writing and reporting. The course covers practical approaches to journalism today.

CAR 332 – Multicultural Communication (4 units)
Prerequisite: CAR 105 or 145 or BUS 230.
The course examines the relationship between culture and communication with emphasis given to cultural norms and values, variances in contexts, psychological influences, linguistic and nonverbal variables. Additionally, methods for identifying potential cultural miscommunication and processes for resolving them through communication are also explored.

CAR 401 – Social Media in Marketing (4 units) Prerequisite: Junior standing. In this course students learn how to use social media for marketing with a global perspective. Through examining case studies and interactive class exercises students learn best practices and technical skills in order to connect business objectives with social media strategies, platforms and tactics. R2, PS2

CJ 362 – Transnational Crimes and Comparative Criminal Justice Systems (4 units)
Prerequisite: CJ 101 or ECO 135.
This course presents an examination of selected criminal justice agencies around the world and their efforts to combat transnational criminal issues. The political, social, and economic environments are studied in relation to varying criminal justice practices. Topics will include the role of international law, the international criminal courts, the United Nations, and Interpol.

ECO 135 – Perspectives on Global Development (4 units)
This course provides a comparative, multi-disciplinary overview of concepts, methods, and theories of development and growth. Global disparities in wealth, power and quality of life are analyzed, and alternative approaches to development are examined.

ECO 400 – People, Profit, Planet (4 units)
Prerequisite: Upper division standing.
An interdisciplinary approach to the challenges of meeting human needs in a socially responsible and environmentally sustainable manner. The course expands on classical economic models by integrating consideration of a triple bottom line of profitability, social equity, and physical sustainability in the broader context of resources, systems, and values.

ECO 410 – Resource Economics (4 units)
Prerequisite: upper division standing.
This course explores historical analysis of population economics and resource management. It will examine aspects of local, national and global markets for resources and the implications for future resource policy. Private-sector and public-sector solutions will be debated. Particular emphasis may be placed on timely topics such as the demand and supply of water and various energy sources.

GS 241 – Reflective Experiential Sojourn (1-2 units)
The course requires students who are encountering first hand a culture other than their own to engage in guided reflection on the experience. The course is open to international students studying in the U.S. as well as any student studying in a MCU-approved program outside of the U.S. May be repeated for credit.

GS 405 – Global City (4 units)
A critical study of significant global cities of the world which examines the urban development, history, culture, politics, economics, environment, art, architecture, spatial analysis, resources, and relationships with other cities within globalization. 405A Global City: Los Angeles – The city of Los Angeles will be studied through the works of scholars, filmmakers, and even the city itself as classroom for various onsite observations. 405B Global City: London – The city of London as a uniquely globalized and post-colonial city will be studied through the works of scholars, artists, and filmmakers.

HIS 100 – Western Tradition I (4 units)
The emergence of European culture and the development of western society from the neolithic era to the Enlightenment. Emphasis on the political, economic, social, religious and intellectual events that had an impact on the maturation of European traditional culture.

HIS 101 – Western Tradition II (4 units)
Emergence of modern European culture and the development of western society from the Age of Absolutism to the present. Emphasis on political, economic, social, religious and intellectual events that had greatest impact on the maturation of modern Europe.

HIS 330 – Latin America and the Latino Experience (4 units)
History of Latin America, with special emphasis on Mesoamerica, from before European contact up to the present. Explores the history of relations between Latin America and the US, with an emphasis on the development of Latino/Hispanic communities in the US, the development of Chicano and Diaspora identities, the role of US-Mexico border, and the role of Mexican heritage in US cultural diversity. Combining archaeology, ethnohistory, history, anthropology, cultural studies, political science, global and ethnic studies, this course provides an in-depth foundation in the origins of, and evolution of, the Latino experience in America.

ID 302H – California in the Global Economy-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. An examination of California’s rich diversity, key industries, past and present trends, current challenges and opportunities including in agriculture, energy, education, arts and media, technology, tourism, services and international trade. Topics include natural and human resources, diversity, migration, innovation, physical infrastructure and transportation, and the international flow of goods, ideas and capital. May include guest speakers and field trips. PS2

POL 240 – Introduction to International Relations (4 units)
This course develops critical thinking skills through observation, analysis and evaluation of competing theories concerning international politics and the specific challenges facing decision-makers. Topics include international conflict and cooperation, economic development, and global environmentalism.

PSY 280 – Intercultural Psychology (4 units)
Prerequisite: PSY 150.
This course introduces theories, concepts and research methods employed in studying behavior in the intercultural context, variables influencing human interaction, and basic knowledge concerning cultural issues. This course facilitates students’ development of observational and analytical skills regarding intercultural interaction.

PSY 340 – Foundations of Counseling (4 units)
Prerequisite: PSY 150.
This course is an introduction to counseling theory and practice. Psychological theories, techniques and processes are studied. Ethical perspectives, issues and concepts are understood through psychological case studies.

REL 130 – World Religions (4 units)
Introduction to the history, literature and thought patterns of the major religions of the world.
Or
REL 130H – World Religions-Honors (4) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. Introduction to the history, literature and thought patterns of the major religions of the world. Students will examine the nature, origin, function, and experience of religion through a research project that profiles the lived experience of a religious community of their choosing in the greater Los Angeles region. At least one field trip to a religious site will occur during the semester.

SOC 100 – Introduction to Sociology (4 units)
Introduction to basic concepts of sociology and sociological analysis. Emphasis upon the group, socialization, social processes, stratification, institutions, social organization and social change.

SOC 250 – Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class in the United States (4 units)
Strongly recommended: An introductory course in Psychology or Sociology.
This course examines and analyzes stratification in the U.S. with consideration of the major ethnic and racial groups and gender inequality. Historical and contemporary views and research of assimilation, prejudice and discrimination of minority groups in society will be offered.

SPA 200 – Intermediate Spanish I (4 units)
Prerequisite: SPA 101, or satisfactory score on the placement test, or credit by examination.
Course includes intensive review of grammar with emphasis on the uses of the subjunctive, advanced conversation. Compositions and readings in Spanish culture and civilization designed to increase proficiency in written language and promote intercultural awareness.

THE 310 – Theatre, History and Culture (4 units)
Prerequisite: THE 376.
This course explores the ways world history and culture has shaped various performance traditions. The central focus of this course is the relationship between performance theatre and various modes of human communication. The course is organized according to four main parts: PART I: Performance and theatre in oral and written cultures before 1600 PART II: Theatre and print cultures, 1500 – 1900 PART III: Theatre in modern media cultures, 1850 – 1970 PART IV: Theatre and performance in the age of global communications, 1950 – present.

1 course with a SCI prefix (Other than 136, 321, 342, 443, 497, 498 and 1-unit lab
classes)

BUS 301 – Management for Sustainability (4 units)
The course examines what we mean by sustainability, how businesses as agents of change can integrate sustainability into strategic planning, and how they can recognize opportunity and build success by doing so. Topics include organizational culture and incentives, systems thinking, sustainable strategies and policy, innovation, efficiency, stakeholder engagement, partnerships, cradle to cradle design, product development, product life cycle assessment, environmental accounting, product declarations, management metrics, sustainability targets, training, and promotion. The class works collaboratively on a case study that benefits a local project or organization.

CJ 200 – The Fundamentals of Forensic Science Investigations (4 units)
This course studies the fundamentals and applications of the forensic sciences. This crime scene management course will survey fundamental topics in biology and chemistry that are relevant to forensic science. Topics include Management of Crime Scenes, Medicolegal Death Investigation, Crime Scene Reconstruction, Biological samples, DNA, PCR, Genetics, Proteins and Enzymes, Cellular Biology, Structure and Reactivity of Chemical Compounds, and Ethics and Forensic Science. This course is designed for forensic investigators, police officers, private or public investigators, or other students or professionals with an interest in forensic investigation. No Lab fee for ’20-21

ECO 400 – People, Profit, Planet (4 units)
Prerequisite: Upper division standing.
An interdisciplinary approach to the challenges of meeting human needs in a socially responsible and environmentally sustainable manner. The course expands on classical economic models by integrating consideration of a triple bottom line of profitability, social equity, and physical sustainability in the broader context of resources, systems, and values.

ECO 410 – Resource Economics (4 units)
Prerequisite: upper division standing.
This course explores historical analysis of population economics and resource management. It will examine aspects of local, national and global markets for resources and the implications for future resource policy. Private-sector and public-sector solutions will be debated. Particular emphasis may be placed on timely topics such as the demand and supply of water and various energy sources.

GEO 108 – Physical Geography (4 units)
Physical Geography is the study of planet Earth as a system of interrelated parts, exploring its major subsystems – land, water and air – and their interactions. Topics include weather and climate, the hydrologic cycle, land forms, soils, and vegetation.

GS 220 – Introduction to Sustainability (4 units)
Recommended preparation: prior college science course.
A survey of the theory and practice of sustainability, addressing human impacts on Earth’s natural and human resources through resource consumption, waste and pollution. Coverage includes philosophical rationales, scientific underpinnings, and applied measures to reduce unsustainable practices in business operations, public administration, household management, and other enterprises.

ID 233H – Food in America-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. This interdisciplinary course will explore where our food comes from and how it shapes our bodies and identities. To understand the place of food in society, we will draw on a number of disciplinary lenses to better understand the ecological, social, health, political, policy, legal, and economic dimensions of food. Students will choose a project from a variety of food related topics (e.g. agricultural movements, food justice, food ethics, or nutrition and the American diet) conduct research drawn from a number of disciplinary methodologies and create a presentation. In addition to reading, course delivery methods will include: discussion, field experiences, guest lectures, a journal, and multimedia. PS3

ID 300H – Thirsty Planet – The Science, Economics and Politics of Water-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Sophomore Standing or higher and invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. The course examines scientific, ecological, economic and political perspectives on issues involved in decisions about water management. PS3

PSY 370 – Psychology of Health and Wellness (4 units)
Prerequisite: PSY 150. This course will explore the contributions of psychology to our understanding of health and illness. We will explore the relationship between psychological factors and the development of illnesses the role that social, emotional, and behavioral factors play in the prevention of illness and the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle and we will examine how psychologists can assist in the management of chronic and terminal illnesses. We will also take a critical look at the current state of our healthcare system.

PSY 445 – Physiological Psychology (4 units)
Prerequisite: PSY 150 and PSY 240.
Study of the neurological and physiological foundations of behavior. Includes an introduction to functional neuroanatomy, as well as detailed study of the physiological bases of sensation, perception, emotion, motivation, learning, and higher mental functions. (Formerly PSY 335)

1 course from Arts & Media (AM exclusions: 107, 207, 307, 407, 450, 497, 498, Internship, and Practicum courses)

Music or Theology

BUS 315 – Principles of Entrepreneurship (4 units)
Recommended pre- or corequisite: BUS 300.
The course will set the framework for the principles and practices necessary for the formation and development of a new enterprise. In addition, students will learn what investors look for when assessing a business opportunity.

BUS 316 – Entrepreneurship II (4 units)
Prerequisite: ACCT 151, BUS 315.
A project-based course that will emphasize the hands-on business practices which are the major components of a full-cycle development of an idea into a successful enterprise. Students will refine their entrepreneurial skills and develop a business plan.

BUS 415 – Entrepreneurship for Social Change (4 units)
Social entrepreneurship is an emerging field which asserts that the problems of the world cannot be solved by governments or economic markets. To make real changes, entrepreneurs must act as stewards of their communities and undertake ventures which add social value. This interdisciplinary course is targeted to those students who believe they may seriously consider a social entrepreneurial opportunity early in their careers, although the skills developed will benefit any career direction. This course will include a field project with significant social service value-added.

BUS 454 – New Product Development (4 units)
Prerequisite: BUS 350.
This course will use readings, case analysis and projects to examine the processes, tools, and best practices used in developing new products and services. Topics include concept identification, market feasibility, technical feasibility, financial feasibility, new product adoption, and life-cycle management.

ENG 120 – Introduction to Literature (4 units)
Prerequisite: ENG 112.
A survey of literature by genre and/or chronology with the principal emphasis on representative works from English and American literature. Short stories, poetry, and at least one play and one novel are studied in critical detail.

ENG 125 – Literature and Film (4 units)
Prerequisite: ENG 112.
This course applies the principles of literary criticism and aesthetic analysis to the study of film and literature. Topics include the function of narrative in film, the relationship between the verbal and the visual image, and film as an effective medium for literary themes.

ENG 140 – Introduction to Drama (4 units)
Prerequisite: ENG 112.
A survey of dramatic works from the perspective of literature. Various types and forms of the drama as well as the artistic concerns of the dramatist are examined through selections from the history of the theatre.

ENG 310 – American Catholic Writers (4) Prerequisites: ENG 112, a lower division religion course, and a lower division literature course. This course examines American Catholic writers of the 20th Century, with an emphasis on Fiction, Drama, and Film. Students will learn how the author’s Catholic beliefs influence the characters, themes, and situations of the literary work, and understand how belief systems give unique perspectives on various aspects of American culture and society.

ID 111 – Immersive Reality for Interdisciplinary Applications and Enterprise (4 units) An introductory course in reactive technology. Immersive technology such as Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) is now a mainstream phenomenon used in many industries including, film, media, science, computer science, games, criminal justice, psychology, business and enterprise. In this course students from across the university will learn an overview of the field of virtual reality, and substantive training in the appropriate tools. Students will work in teams to learn about immersive technology for real-world international application, use immersive VR simulations relevant to their respective fields. R2, PS4

ID 200H – Artificial Intelligence: Computational Creativity and Empathy-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. This interdisciplinary course explores history, representation and utilization of artificial intelligence in various forms of cultural productions including literature, film, art, music and video games. Students learn the ethical issues associated with the use of artificial intelligence in cultural productions and its impact on how we see and understand our world. PS4, PS5

ID 430H – Perspectives on Leadership through Film and Theater-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Sophomore Standing or higher and invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher. The course offers students opportunities to discuss and reflect on leadership attributes and challenges through the ages as portrayed through film and theater. Includes a practice-based research project. R3, PS4, PS5

ACCT 385 – Professional Ethics in Accounting (4 units)
Prerequisite: ACCT 352
This is a case based course that examines different theories of the accountant’s professional responsibilities and ethics adopted by professional associations, state licensing boards for accountants, auditors, and fraud examiners such as the AICPA. The course will present a range of ethics-related issues, including the causes of ethical violations and frauds, whistle blowing, and the design and operation of company compliance and ethics programs. Topics include research, discussion and application of selected historical and contemporary ethical cases and issues as they relate to accounting firms and business activities.

BUS 240 – Business Ethics: Theories, Values and Case Studies (4 units)
This course critically analyses the essential role of ethics in the American-Global business community. Topics for analysis include: the current ethical conditions in the business community defining business defining ethics the necessary connection between business and ethics the purpose/s of work fair profits and wages capitalism and its critics global business practices power and justice corporate and employee responsibilities business, sustainability, and the environment ethics and global business relations.

CJ 331 – Ethics and Professional Responsibility in Criminal Justice (4 units)
This course examines the philosophical and theoretical basis of ethics within the criminal justice profession throughout the US. It explores professional standards and professional conduct and analyzes and evaluates ethical dilemmas through case studies, research, and discussion. The roles of the organizations within the criminal justice system including police, corrections, prosecution and defense are each reviewed independently, and as a larger system.

ID 200H – Artificial Intelligence: Computational Creativity and Empathy-Honors (4 units) Prerequisite: Invitation into Honors program or MCU cumulative GPA of 3.5 or higher.

This interdisciplinary course explores history, representation and utilization of artificial intelligence in various forms of cultural productions including literature, film, art, music and video games. Students learn the ethical issues associated with the use of artificial intelligence in cultural productions and its impact on how we see and understand our world. PS4, PS5

PHI 100 – Contemporary Moral Issues (4 units)
A critical examination of controversial moral problems confronting contemporary society. Topics may include: abortion, capital punishment, environmental ethics, sexual morality, euthanasia, affluence and poverty, business ethics, censorship, gun control, discrimination, nuclear war, and genetic engineering.

PHI 110 – Ethics (4 units)
Concerned with the justification for how/why we treat each other and the environment. The focus is on the question of the good life, the development of moral character, the relative merits of ethical principles, and the ethical assumptions of the student and of modern society.

PHI 150 – Human Nature and Values (4 units)
The major ideologies and philosophies defining the meaning of human nature and their consequent values and philosophies of life: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Christianity the teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Descartes, Darwin, Huxley, Marx, Freud, Skinner and Sartre scientific reductionism cybernetics.

PHI 215 – Health Care Ethics (4 units)
This course is an introduction to the academic study of health care ethics. The course will examine the foundational methods, principles, and theories of health care ethics in an interdisciplinary setting. This framework will be used for addressing ethical problems in making treatment decisions, providing care among diverse populations, and determining fair allocation of resources. Specific topics may include culture competencies in delivery of health care, research experimentation, reproduction, physician-assisted suicide, and bio-technology.

PHI 315 – Ethics in America: the Pursuit of Happiness (4 units)
Recommended prerequisite: one lower division American History or Economics course. The Declaration of Independence defined “The American Dream” as “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” This search defines us as a people. References to “happiness” are everywhere: advertisements promise to help consumers attain it, musicians sing about it, politicians invoke it in an effort to gain public support. But what is it? In this course, we will explore interpretations of American understandings of happiness in shaping the national moral character, and critically examine the ethical choices people have made and do make “to be happy.”

PSY 240 – Research Methods for the Study of Behavior (4 units)
Prerequisite: C or higher in PSY 235 or MTH 270.
An introduction to scientific inquiry and research in the social sciences, including experimental and non-experimental designs. Includes data collection strategies, hypothesis testing, analyzing tests of measurement, and use of computer aids. Ethical perspectives, issues, and concepts are applied to case studies. For students planning to major in the behavioral/social sciences, Statistics is the first component of a recommended two-course sequence and should be followed by PSY 240.

UNIT TOTALS

Any college level course listed in the Catalog or accepted as transfer credit may be used as an elective to fulfill the 120 unit degree requirement in this degree program.


Strategy AM-308 - History

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Auction 204

Closing Date: August 2, 2014

1. Naval. PC (USS Rhode Island) 1c stp. cancel USS CUMBERLAND &ndash 11 APR 1913 (F/VF) with &ldquoGUANTANAMO &hellip - CUBA&rdquo in KB. VF. MB $5.00 (1410)

2. Naval. PC (Barracks Mare Island) 1c stp. cancel USS INDEPENDENCE &ndash FEB 19 9AM, 1911 (VF &ndash Ty.1) < three-masted ship>. VF. MB $10.00 (0901)

3. Naval. PC 1c stp. cancel USS MARYLAND &ndash JUN 4 5PM, 1910 (F &ndash Ty.1) < Cruiser>. VF. MB $6.00 (0901)

4. Naval. PC 1c stp. cancel USS VIRGINIA &ndash SEP 3 P.M., 1913 (VF &ndash Ty.3) with &ldquoMASS&rdquo in killer bars. < Battleship >. VF. MB $10.00 (0901)

5. AEF &ndash APO 2. Sender 2nd Cav AEF. Cancel Type A6001 US Army Postal Service 2(MC flag 10 Jun 1918 - F/VF). Square AEF Base Censor 6 + Boxed Examined by 52. VF (0901) MB $5.00

6. AEF &ndash APO 715. Sender 168th Infantry AEF. Canc. Type A2011 US Army Postal Service 715 (not sure of #) &ndash Jul 7, 1918 (F). AEF censor A.445. VF (09010)

7. AEF &ndash APO 716. YMCA cover Canc. Type A3001.5 US Army Post Office MPES *716* (5 28 &ndash Variety no star no year &ndash F/VF). AEF Censor A&hellip. VF (0901)

8. AEF. P/C &ldquoRosemary! That&rsquos for remembrance&rdquo showing soldier and young lady. Canc. Eagle + Military Post Office Soldier&rsquos mail (MC&ndash F/VF). Censor &ldquoMilitary Mail Censor 9&rdquo. VF (0901) MB $4.00

9. AEF &ndash APO ?. YMCA On Active Service &ndash AEF FRANCE P/C dateline Molesme France. Canc. Type A2101 US Army Post Office M.P.E.S. number ? (2 APR 1919 &ndash Ave/F). Faint AEF Censor. VF MB $5.00 (0901)

10. Belgium &ndash German Occupation. Commercial cover with CC franked with German Occupation Ovpt &ldquoBelgien 15 CENT.&rdquo. Canc. Postprufunasstelle &ndash Etappen-Inspektion Gent - * -8. 2. 17. A&rdquo (F/VF). VF MB $5.00 (0901)

11. Italy. P/C. Handstamp &ldquo5e Reggimento Alpini &ndash Battaglione Vest&hellip. Italian stp indistinct canc. Posta Militare. MS 28-7-16. F (little hole) (0901)

12. Fort Riley, Kansas. WD #10 official MC Fort Riley Kans. Dec 18, 1928 (VF). VF (0901)

13. Spanish Civil War. Cover Rep. Espanola stp cancel Estafeta de Cambio &ndash Barcelona - 3 NOV 38 (VF). Handstamp &ldquoRepublica Espanola - Censura&rdquo. To US. VF MB $8.00 (0901)

14. Spanish Civil War. Cover Rep. Espanola stps MC cancel Barcelona &ndash 14 Mar 38 (Ave). Handstamp &ldquoRepublica Espanola - Censura&rdquo + indistinct handstamp + 259. To Paris, France. VF MB $8.00 (0901)

15. Spanish Civil War. Cover Espana stps cancel Zaragoza &ndash 12 DIC 38 (VF). Handstamp &ldquo Censura Militar - Zaragoza&rdquo. To Italy. VF MB $8.00 (0901)

16. US Veterans Hospital. WD #10 official canc. Fort Lyon Colo. OCT 8, &hellip (Ave). Pencil note on back RCVD Oct 15, 29. VF (0901)

17. China &ndash USS Black Hawk. Sender CC Asst. Navy Mail Clerk. Canc. USS BLACK HAWK &ndash 27 OCT 1934 with &ldquoSHANGHAI - CHINA&rdquo in KB (VF). VF MB $10.00 (0901)

18. China &ndash USS John D. Ford. Canc. USS JOHN D. FORD &ndash 17 OCT 1937 with &ldquoCHEFOO &ndash N. CHINA&rdquo in KB (VF). VF MB $8.00 (0901)

19. China &ndash USS Monocacy. Canc. USS MONOCACY &ndash 25 DEC 1934 with &ldquoHAN KOW - CHINA&rdquo in KB (VF). VF MB $10.00 (0901)

20. China &ndash USS Oahu. Canc. USS OAHU &ndash 25 JUL 1932 with &ldquoHANKOW &ndash HUPER CHINA&rdquo in KB (VF). VF MB $10.00 (0901)

21. China &ndash USS Parrott. Czubay Cacheted &ldquoAsiatic Fleet&rdquo Canc. USS PARROTT &ndash 2 SEP 1940 with &ldquoWEI HATWEI - CHINA&rdquo in KB (F). VF MB $10.00 (0901)

22. USS Delaware. Cover &ndash canc. KB U.S.S. DELAWARE &ndash 21 SEP 1920 with &ldquoNEW YORK &ndash N.Y.&rdquo in KB (F). VF MB $5.00 (1410)

23. USS Erie. Cacheted cover &ndash canc. KB U.S.S. ERIE &ndash 11 NOV 1936 with &ldquoARMISTICE &ndash 1918 DAY 1936&rdquo in KB (VF). VF MB $3.00 (0901)

24. USS MISSISSIPPI. Cacheted cover &ndash Canc. Type 6 U.S.S. MISSISSIPPI &ndash 27 SEP 1933 (F). Handstamp Havana Cuba &ndash Shakedown Cruise &ndash Modernized Sept 1, 1933&rdquo. VF (0901)

25. USS Northampton. Richell Cacheted cover (Return to the Pacific) &ndash Canc Type F U.S.S. NORTHAMPTON &ndash 3 DEC 1934 with &ldquoGOODBUYE - ATLANTIC&rdquo in KB (VF). VF MB $5.00 (0901)

26. Alaska. Free franked cover Canc. APO 730 (KB Nov 1943 &ndash F/VF). MS Censor. F (fold) MB $5.00 (1410)

27. Alaska. Patriotic cover 5c Netherlands Flag + 1c canc. APO 986 (MC Jan 1945 &ndash F). Censor. VF (1410)

28. Australia. 6c air cover Canc. 7 BPO (MC Oct 1943 &ndash VF). Censor. Sender APO 4750. VF (1410)

29. Azores. Free franked cover Canc. APO 406 (KB Dec 1944 &ndash VF). MS Censor. F/VF MB $5.00 (1410)

30. Belgium. Free franked cover canc. APO 53 (KB Jul 1945 &ndash VF). VF MB $5.00 (1410)

31. Belgium. 6c air cover canc. APO 113 (KB Mar 1945 &ndash F). MS Censor. F (fold) MB $5.00 (1410)

32. Belgium. Cover 5c Netherlands Flag + 1c canc. APO 117 (KB Mar 1945 &ndash F). F (fold) MB $10.00 (1410)

33. Belgium. Sender 6820 CBS - APO 228. Free franked canc. APO 571 &ndash 3 JUL 1945 (F). Ave Stain MB $5.00 (0900)

34. Canada. Free franked cover canc. APO 677 (KB Dec 1944 &ndash Ave/F). MS Censor. VF (1410)

35. Canada. Free franked cover canc. APO 724 (KB Dec 1943 &ndash VF). Censor. VF MB $10.00 (1410)

36. China. Free franked cover canc. APO 627 (KB Oct 1945 &ndash F). VF (0909)

37. France. Patriotic Free franked cover canc. 11 BPO (MC Apr 1945 &ndash VF). Sender APO 887. Censor. VF (1410)

38. France. 6c air cover canc. APO 89 (MC Jan 1945 &ndash Ave). Censor. VF (1410)

39. Germany (7). All front only. Sender Hq Co 6th Corps APO 46. All 6c air canc. APO 46 &ndash 1945/46 (Ave - F). Ave (0900)

40. Germany. Sender 506 Army Postal Unit. 6c air canc. APO 755 (MC Aug 1945 &ndash VF). With letter. VF (0901)

41. GB. Blue Envelope &ndash Sender 314 Army Postal Unit. 2x 6c air canc. APO (314?) (KB Apr 1945 &ndash Ave/F). VF MB $5.00 (1410)

42. Hungary &ndash Military Russian Occupation P/C. Free franked Canc. Tabori Posta Hivatal 47 (41 x 10 &ndash VF). Back Russian 30 Kopecks stp canc in Cyrilic (Khonkovtsi 239). VF Philatelic (1407)

43. Iceland. 6c air cover canc. APO 860 (KB Jul 1942 &ndash F). Base Censor. VF MB $5.00(1410)

44. Netherlands. 2 x 3c stps canc. APO 79 (KB Mar 1945 &ndash Ave/F). Censor. F (fold) (1410)

45. N. Ireland. 3x British stps canc. APO 813 (KB 1942 no month &ndash F). Censor. VF (1410)

46. Patriotic. Cacheted &ldquoBuy War Bonds&rdquo cover. 5c Korea Flag + 3c stp canc. US Navy Naval Air Station (MC 1 Jan 1945 &ndash F). VF (0901)

47. Philippines. Free franked cover canc. 4 BPO (MC Jul 1945 &ndash F). Sender APO 24. 2x Censor. VF (0909)

48. Puerto Rico. 6c air cover canc. APO 851 (MC Jun 1944 &ndash VF). Censor. VF (1410)

49. Spain - Censor. Commercial cover to Germany. Spanish Stps canc. Jerez de la Frontera (Cadiz) 8 FEB 40. Handstamp "Censura Militar - Jerez de la Frontera " + German censor tape on back. VF MB $5.00 (0901)

50. Dallas TX USN Aviation Base. Patriotic &ldquoKeep &lsquoem Flying&rdquo 3c stp canc Dallas, TEX &ndash U.S.N. RES. AVIATION BASE BR &ndash 7 OCT 1941 (Dr &ndash VF). VF (0901)

51. U.S.C.G. Sender printed CC USCG Training Station, Curtis Bay, Maryland. Free franked MC U.S. Navy - 23 AUG 1943 (F). VF (0909)

52. USS ABSD-2. Free franked canc. US Navy (KB OCT 1943 &ndash VF) + New York NY U.S.S. ABSD 2 Br (DR &ndash VF). Multiple CC handstamp in V shape. No address. VF Philatelic (1410)

53. USS Charles F. Hughes. Patriotic cacheted cover 2c stp canc. U.S.S. Charles F. Hughes &ndash 27 FEB 1941 with &ldquoGuantanamo Bay Cuba&rdquo in the killer bars (VF). VF (0901)

54. USS Strategy AM-308. 4x 8c air cover canc. US Navy (KB 2 SEP 1945 &ndash VF). Censor. VF MB $5.00 (1410)

55. USS Strategy AM-308. 4x 6c air cover canc. US Navy (KB 2 SEP 1945 &ndash VF). Censor. VF MB $5.00 (1410)

56. APO 7. Free franked &ndash Sender 707th ORD M Bn, APO 7. Cancel APO 7 (MC 21 JUN 53 &ndash VF). Located Taekwang-ni, Korea. VF (0909)

57. APO 59. Free franked &ndash Sender QM Service Co, APO 59. Cancel APO 59 (KB 11 NOV 51 &ndash F). Located Pusan, Korea. F (fold) (0909)

58. APO 71. Free Franked &ndash Sender Sig Det 3, APO 71. Cancel APO (71?) (MC 31 Jul 53 &ndash Ave). Located Wonju, Korea. VF (0909)

59. APO 86. Free Franked &ndash Sender INF. Canc. APO 86 (MC 28 APR 53 &ndash F). Located Nambakchon, Korea. F (fold) (0909)

60. APO 901. Free franked. Sender 931st EAB, APO 901. Canc. APO 901 (MC 9 May 55 &ndash F). Located Taegu AB, Korea. VF (0909)

61. APO 909. Free franked. Sender 196 FA Bn, APO 301. Canc. APO 909 (MC ? May 52 &ndash Ave/F). Located Pupyong-ni, Korea. VF (0909)

62. APO 970. Free franked. Sender 35th Sup Sqdn, APO 970. Canc. APO 970 (KB 16 Feb 51 &ndash Ave/F). With letter. Located Taegu, Korea. VF (0909)

63. APO 96262. Free Franked. Canc. APO 96262 (MC 22 Oct 67 &ndash F). Located Pleiku, Vietnam. F (back flap missing) (0909)

64. Bermuda. Patriotic free franked canc. APO 856 (MC Apr 1946 &ndash VF). VF MB $5.00 (1410)

65. Canada &ndash CFPO 27. Forces Air letter Canadian stps canc. CFPO-27 (1964 &ndash F/VF) in Nicosia, Cyprus. To CAPO 5047. VF (1411)

66. Canada &ndash CFPO 40 (2). 2x covers Canadian stps canc. CFPO-40. 1 is 1961 (F)in Hemer, Germany. 1 is 1977 (VF) in Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

67. Canada &ndash CFPO 42. P/C (Soest) Canadian stp canc. CFPO-42 (1965 &ndash F) in Soest, Germany. VF (1411)

68. Canada &ndash CFPO 42. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-42 (1967 &ndash Ave/F) in Soest, Germany. VF (1411)

69. Canada &ndash CFPO 43. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-43 (1977 &ndash VF) in Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

70. Canada &ndash CFPO 44. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-44 (19?? &ndash Ave) in Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

71. Canada &ndash CFPO 102. # 10 OHMS Cover Belgian meter to RCAF Langar Notts, England (1961). Back boxed canc. CFPO 102 &ndash General Delivery. In Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

72. Canada &ndash CFPO 105 (2). 2x covers Canadian stps canc. CFPO-105. 1 is 1960 (F)in France. 1 is 1978 (VF) in Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

73. Canada &ndash CFPO 105. P/C (Paris) Canadian stp canc. CFPO-105 (1953 &ndash Ave/F) in France. To RCAF Portage la Prairie. F (1411)

74. Canada &ndash CFPO 109. Cover from St Catharines ONT (1962) to CAPO 5052. Back boxed canc. CFPO 109 &ndash General Delivery (Ave). In Metz, France. VF (1411)

75. Canada &ndash CFPO 107. # 10 OHMS Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-107 (1961 &ndash VF) in Bade Sollingen, Germany. VF (1411)

76. Canada &ndash CFPO 108. # 10 OHMS Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-108 (1960 &ndash F/VF) in Marville, France. VF (1411)

77. Canada &ndash CFPO 108. #10 Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-108 (1976 &ndash F) in Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

78. Canada &ndash CFPO 111. Forces Air letter Canadian stps canc. CFPO-111 (1963 &ndash VF) in Decimomannu, Italy. To CAPO 5047. VF (1411)

79. Canada &ndash CFPO 5000. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5000 (1972 &ndash VF) in Lahr, Germany. VF (1411)

80. Canada &ndash CFPO 5003. Forces Air letter Canadian stps canc. CFPO-5003 (1970 &ndash VF). Used for Exercise Nimrod II. To CAPO 5050. VF (1411)

81. Canada &ndash CFPO 5004. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5004 (1991 &ndash VF) in Doha, Qatar. VF Philatelic (1411)

82. Canada &ndash CFPO 5053. #10 Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5053 (1956 &ndash VF) in Paris, France. VF (1411)

83. Canada &ndash CFPO 5055. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5055 (1967 &ndash Ave) in Zweibrucken, Germany. VF (1411)

84. Canada &ndash CAPO 5055. Forces Air letter free franked NO cancel but handstamp &ldquoR CAPO 5055&rdquo. To CAPO 5052. Misc handstamps on back. In Zweibrucken, Germany. VF Philatelic (1411)

85. Canada &ndash CFPO 5056. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5056 (1965 &ndash Ave) in Baden Soellingen, Germany. VF (1411)

86. Canada &ndash CFPO 5056. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5056 (197? &ndash Ave) in Baden, Germany. VF (1411)

87. Canada &ndash CFPO 5056. P/C (London) Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5056 (1976 &ndash VF) in Baden, Germany. VF (1411)

88. Canada &ndash RCAF Langar. Cover British meter RCAF Langar Notts England 1962 (F/VF). Handstamp of both RCAF Langar and RAF Ballykelly but no address? VF MB $5.00 (1411)

89. Germany &ndash APO 28. 6c air Canc. APO 28 (1957 &ndash VF). Handstamp &ldquoMissent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas&rdquo. F (fold) (0909)

90. Germany &ndash APO 403. Sender Brig Gen Creighton W. Abrams APO 403. US stps canc. APO (403) (KB 1966 &ndash F). VF (1410)

91. Germany &ndash APO 742-A. 6c Air canc APO 742A (KB 1948 &ndash F). Berlin Airlift. VF MB $10.00 (1410)

92. Hamilton Field. Sender and canc. Hamilton Field Calif (MC 1945 &ndash F) to Bunohan School, Honolulu, T.H.. Aux. handstamp &ldquoNo record at Sta Hospital &ndash Hamilton Field, Calif.&rdquo. VF (0909)

93. Alaska &ndash Kodiak. Size #10 commercial cover 6c air canc U.S. NAVY BR. 13609 &ndash NAVAL AIR STATION - MC 1950 (VF). VF (0901)

94. Egypt. Sender Office of US Naval Attache &ndash American Embassy &ndash Cairo Egypt. Egyptian stamps indistinct canc. 26 NOV 1947. F (fold) (0909)

95. US Separation Center (2) in CC. 1 # 10 Official ND CC Shoemaker, Calif. Canc. US Navy (MC 1946 &ndash VF) with letter. 1 cover 8c air canc. Minneapolis, Minn AMF &ndash 1945. VF (0909)

96. Argentina &ndash Official. #10+ Official &ldquoArmada Argentina&rdquo with military label &ldquoServ. Correo Naval &ndash M.P.&rdquo canc. Estafeta Central &ndash Mar Del Plata &ndash 29 JUL 2002. Handstamp &ldquoArmada Argentina &ndash Submarino A.R.A. Suboficial Castillo&rdquo. VF MB $5.00 (0901)

97. NATO Flown cover. Commemorative # 10 cover 10th Anniv NAPMO. Belgian + Dutch stps canc. 1988 on cover FLOWN on AWACS plane from Brussels to Brunssum. Numbered cover. VF MB $10.00 (0901)

98. USS Rhode Island (Sub). Change of command cover Signed by both Captains. Canc. St Mary&rsquos GA &hellip 1995. VF (0901)

99. SFOR - Canada. Mail Bag Tag CCSFOR CFPO 5112 canc. CFPO-5112 (2002 &ndash Last Day CFPO ?) in Zagreb, Croatia. F MB $7.00 (1411)

100. UNEF II - Canada. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5002 (1974 &ndash VF) in Egypt. VF (1411)

101. UNFICYP - Canada. Cacheted Cover (45th Anniv Caen Captured) Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5001 (1989 &ndash F) in Cyprus. VF Philatelic (1411)

102. UNFICYP - Canada. Forces Air letter Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5001 (1965 &ndash VF) in Cyprus. VF (1411)

103. UNFICYP - Canada. Cover Canadian stp canc. CFPO-5001 (1989 &ndash F) in Cyprus. VF (1411)

104. UNTAG - Namibia. Handstamps &ldquoPollog &ndash UNTAG&rdquo. Free franked canc. Warszawa 60 &ndash 89-10-11. VF MB $5.00 (0901)

105. UNTSO. Small official UNTSO stationary. Canadian stp canc. CFPO 32 - 28 II 67 (VF). VF MB $5.00 (0901)

106. UNTSO. Size 10 official UNTSO stationary. Israeli stps canc. Jerusalem 197(6)? (Ave). VF MB $5.00 (0901)

107. Autograph &ndash Flying Tigers in China. 5 x 3 card Autographed by Edward L. Stiles - Flying Tigers - 3rd Sqdn AVG Crew Chief &ndash Burma + China &rsquo41 + 42. VF MB $10.00 (0901)

108. Autograph &ndash Tuskegee Airmen. 5 x 3 card Autographed by captain Harvey Alexander &ndash Tuskegee Airmen &ndash B-25 Pilot &ndash 617th Sqd, 477th Bomb Grp. VF MB $14.00 (0901)

109. Book &ldquoEnlisted Soldier&rsquos Guide&rdquo. 2nd Edition by SGM Dennis Perez. 224 pages &ndash Published 1990. VF MB $4.00 (0901)

110. Book &ldquoWith Wings like Eagles&rdquo. The untold Story of the battle of Britain. By Michael Korda. 320 pages &ndash Published 2009. VF MB $5.00 (0901)

111. U.S.S. BENFOLD &ndash Commissioning book 1996. U.S.S. Benfold (DDG-65) 88 pages full size. VF MB $12.00 (0901)

[ END OF SALE ]

Suggested (SB) or Reserve Bids (RES) are in general provided by the Seller
and are not necessarily endorsed by the Auction Manager.

Descriptions & Bidding

Abbreviation: MS = Manuscript -- Stp = Stamp — PC = Postcard -- Pict = Lot is pictured
Cancels: KB = Killer bar -- MC = Machine cancel — DR = Double ring (all purpose)
APO or Navy Br number is in the cancel unless specified otherwise.
V-Mails have been processed and are with envelopes unless stated otherwise.
MB = Minimum Bid -- SB = Suggested Bid (this is just a suggestion, not a minimum)


Looking for 3D Hearing / Swertres Hearing today

No one can predict the winning numbers for Swertres or any other PCSO lotto game results. However, there are some Swertres analyzer who compile previous Swertres results and make analysis based on their gathered data. These analyses are called ‘probables’, ‘hearing’ or ‘guides’. PS.Team sharing 3D Swertres Hearing since 2014. For more update join us on Facebook


Identifying the difference between AR-10 and LR-308 rifles.

Don't listen to the guy behind the counter at your local FFL or even rely on the name of the item you purchased.

The absolute easiest way to positively identify if you have a DPMS style LR-308 or an AR-10 is the angle from the rear take down hole to the top of the receiver threaded for your buffer tube. Aside from it's size, an LR-308 will look just like an AR-15 with a nice smooth gradual curve. The AR-10 will have a much more noticeable sharp angle. Please see highlighted portions of the above images.

Obviously, the same will go for your upper receivers, and hopefully you can also see that because of this an LR-308 lower is not compatible with an AR-10 upper and vice versa.


Top 5 Worst Incidences of Martial Law in the United States

I believe, wholeheartedly, that the United States is the best country in the world. Need proof? Check out our long history of success and prosperity. Now that I’ve got my flag-waving out of the way, let’s get into the juicy stuff. America’s prosperous history is marked with some truly hideous blemishes. These ugly periods largely coincide with declarations of martial law. Simply put, martial law is when a governor, Congress, or The President legally acknowledges shit has hit the fan. In these circumstances habeas corpus is suspended, the military steps in, and locally elected officials lose efficacy.

What’s that? Describing martial law as a legal declaration of shit hit the fan isn’t satisfactory? I wish I could explain more about the scope of martial law in the United States. The frightening part is that nobody really knows what martial law is.

In Duncan v Kahanamoku (1946) the Supreme Court criticized the implementation of martial law in Hawaii. Writing about the case, Justice Hugo Black expressed his confusion: “The term martial law carries no precise meaning. The Constitution does not refer to ‘martial law'”. If the Supreme Court doesn’t know what martial law is, how can our elected officials responsibly declare it? When we enter a state of martial law, we are leaping from the precipice of known legal dictates into an abyss of tyrannical chaos. Since the Supreme Court can’t tell us what the hell martial law is, we have to look at a few of the worst examples in the United States. Here are my top five worst instances of martial law in United States history.

5. Boston – 1774

In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British issued the Massachusetts Government Act. The intent of the Act was to nullify the existing colonial government in Massachusetts by replacing it with a royally appointed governor. Every American knows how this story ends: the Revolutionaries waged war with the British and won their independence. The formation of The United States is a pretty nice silver lining to this anti-democratic act. For this reason, I’ll consider it the least terrible of the 5.

4. New Orleans – 1812

Prior to the Battle of New Orleans, General Andrew Jackson implemented martial law in the area. An intervening judge demanded Jackson restore habeas corpus. In the most ballsy, Andrew Jackson-esque move, he had the judge arrested and continued with business as usual.

As President, Jackson showed the same contempt towards the legal system. In a separate incident, when Chief Justice John Marshall delivered his ruling precluding the removal of Native Americans from their lands, Jackson said, “John Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it.” Jackson ignored the Supreme Court and did as he pleased. While I should be disgusted by Jackson’s disregard for the law, I can’t help but respect his steel tenacity.

3. Tulsa – 1921

In an incredibly shameful turn of events, the Tulsa Municipal government was complicitous in the murder of over 300 black citizens. Amidst the destruction and murder, the National Guard, with permission from local authorities, implemented martial law. They eventually restored peace but the damage was lasting. In this instance, martial law was absolutely necessary to restore law and order. The Tulsa Race Riot is a unique case because the destruction leading up to martial law, not the implementation of martial law itself, was so deplorable.

2. The United States – 1863

In order to respond to increasing dissent in the Union during the Civil War, President Lincoln enacted martial law. The chief result of this was the suspension of due process and the establishment of military tribunals. It is unclear how many innocent people were deprived of justice during this period. In any case, the Supreme Court ruled Lincoln’s imposition of martial law to be unconstitutional in the 1866 case Ex Parte Milligan.

Justice David Davis condemned the Lincoln Administration’s practices in the Court’s majority opinion. The Court gave martial law and Lincoln the finger saying, “The Constitution of the United States is a law for rulers and people, equally in war and peace, and covers with the shield of its protection all classes of men, at all times and under all circumstances.” I can’t think of a more eloquent way of telling the government to leave due process the hell alone.

1. Colorado – 1914

After seeing � Colorado’ in first place, I imagine many of you are puzzled. In fact, you’re probably thinking, “Hold on, dumbass, how does a petty conflict in Colorado beat out the Civil War?” This is a fair question. Allow me to explain.

In the early 20th Century, labor conditions in American coal mines were deplorable. Miners were poorly compensated for long, difficult hours in hazardous environments. When the miners did return home, they returned to houses and towns owned by their employers. Miners were not allowed to leave the company owned towns without express permission from their employer. On many levels, it is difficult to differentiate these feudalistic mining systems from slavery.

Not surprisingly, miners in Colorado unionized and protested their abhorrent work conditions. Rather than acquiesce to basic demands like an 8 hour work day, the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company enlisted the support of the Governor. Martial law was declared, the National Guard arrived, tensions escalated, and the standstill between workers and the State culminated in a violent boil. Two dozen people, including women and children, were killed in a lopsided event which would later be referred to as the Ludlow Massacre.

While habeas corpus during the Civil War was suspended for the preservation of The Union, the Ludlow Massacre happened because feudal corporate systems wanted to retain total power over their employees. There was no noble silver lining or justifiable purpose behind the Ludlow Massacre. For this reason, I consider it to be the most heinous.

My Plan For Martial Law

People can say whatever they want about the second amendment but there is no denying that a gun would have been useful in any of the five incidences listed above. For this reason, I keep my SKS sealed in a monovault outside my house. When chaos strikes and the next President Jackson suspends habeas corpus, I’ll be ready to go full Viet-Cong mode in the Rocky Mountains.

Even though I’m a solid hunter, food is going to be an issue. I have some MREs on deck but I could always use more. For now, I’ll just place unreasonably high confidence in my ability to consistently kill elk in the Zirkel Wilderness. When shit hits the fan, a little bit of hubris may not be such a bad thing.

Realistically, the most dangerous thing for me will probably be the harsh winters. My tent could use an upgrade but my sleeping bag is solid. Winters in the Zirkels are never a cake walk but as long as I don’t freeze to death I’ll be happy. Let me know what you would do in the event of martial law. Disagree with my list? Tell me why in the comments.


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What Was President Nixon's Southern Strategy?

Richard Nixon, the 37th United States president, made use of a successful "Southern strategy" to win enough electoral votes from the southern states to defeat Hubert Humphrey, his 1968 Democratic election opponent. Until the 1960s, the southern states had traditionally voted against the Republican "Party of Lincoln" since the Confederate States' loss of the Civil War. By appealing to the anti-integration, states' rights and law-and-order sentiments of many Southerners of the time, Nixon was able to sway enough voters to the Republican ticket and win the election.

A similar strategy had been attempted previously by Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater in 1964. As a result, Goldwater won the "Deep South" states of Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, South Carolina and Georgia. He was the first Republican candidate to win these states since the post-Civil War Reconstruction era. Goldwater's opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, however, hurt his campaign elsewhere and he failed to win any other states except his home state, Arizona.

Four years later, Nixon's "Southern strategy" proved to be successful. Nixon was able to reassure Southern voters that he would be less aggressive in pursuing a civil rights agenda than the previous Democratic administration headed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Nixon's campaign helped gain the support of the Southern states through his opposition to school busing, judicial activism and by remarking that the South should not be treated "as a whipping boy."


Swertres Hearing Maintain and Probables Today

Most our of social media fan’s ask to us What is the best Swertres Hearing for today? or What is the Best Swertres Guide for today? We are PS.Team here to help you win Swertres Lotto. Below is our Swertres Pairing guide, Pasakay guide, Swertres Hot and Cold numbers, Swertres daily hearing and Swertres monthly hearing. Here are Swertres hearing for today 11am – 4pm – 9pm draws:

Swertres Pasakay Guide Today.

Swertres Guide – (February 15, 2021) – ( 15 ) – 2 – ( 18 ) – 3 – ( 89 )

Swer3 Lotto Pasakay Guide.

Swer3 Guide – (February 15, 2021) – ( 12 ) – 2 – ( 39 ) – 3 – ( 78 )

PS Team Pasakay Guide Today.

February 15, 2021 – Rex31 : ( 19 ) – Jendyle : ( 03 ) – Jishan : ( 069 )

Swertres Pairing Guide Today

Pairing Guide one of the most effective guide to win Swertres lotto game. These PAIRINGS are good for today 11am 4pm and 9pm draws.

Swertres Pairing Guide for today.

February 15, 2021 – ( 93, 91, 53, 51 ) 99.99% Probability

STL Swer3 Lotto Pairing Guide for today.

February 15, 2021 – ( 87, 85, 57, 55 ) 99.99% Probability

‎Swertres Hot & Cold Numbers

Swertres Lotto Hot Numbers and Cold Numbers can be done very simple way, if you have access to Swertres results history, you can do basic analysis on your own to pinpoint the hot and cold numbers.

Swertres Hot Numbers – 0 1 3 9Swertres Cold Numbers – 2 4 7 8

PCSO Swertres Hearing Today

We P.S Team use Hot numbers and Some secret analysis to generate lucky numbers for you. Here are the Swertres hearing for today 11am – 4pm – 9pm draws:

PCSO Swertres Hearing for Tomorrow

We P.S Team use Hot numbers and Some secret analysis to generate lucky numbers for you. Here are the Swertres hearing for today 11am – 4pm – 9pm draws:

Best Swertres Hearing For Today!

Today Hot Swertres and Swer3 combination = 786 – 246 – 027 – 276 – 359 – 183

3D Swertres Monthly Hearing!

465 – 317 – 107 – 739 – 369
028 – 162 – 732 – 321 – 400
604 – 517 – 243 – 714 – 329

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SWERTRES RESULT HISTORY

Swertres Result History is Here on this Page, You can access the Record of All Previous Swertres Result History.

The 3D SWERTRES HEARING TODAY that updated above are based on Previous results, Calendar guide, Pairing, Psakay which call a Mix Methodologies. Those method are the extremely valuable to win SWERTRES/3D Lotto. Paskay Guides are the most important to win Swertres/3D Lotto. Without these guides, you do not get the best results.

Get the Latest Swertres Hearing Today and the other PCSO Lotto & their results are also published here from the Official Source.

Disclaimer: These are not the confirmed digits or there is no guarantee that these numbers, pairs, and combinations are confirmed. These are the suggestions, tips, and calculations sharing by our experts and PCSO professionals. However, you can get an idea from these digits.

Note: Always Bet at your own risk how ever we posted here some hearings. Best of Luck and have a Good Day.

This post about PCSO Swertres Hearing for Tomorrow, PCSO Swertres Hearing Today for 11am 4pm 9pm Draws. PCSO Swertres Hearing Tips Probables,, Swertres Hearing Maintain Today Now and much more !


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